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Noncognitive Report

Noncognitive Report

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Published by Jonathan E. Martin
University of Chicago
University of Chicago

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Published by: Jonathan E. Martin on May 19, 2013
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LITERATURE REVIEW
JUNE 2012
Teaching AdolescentsTo Become Learners
The Role o Noncognitive Factors in Shaping SchoolPerormance: A Critical Literature Review
Camille A. Farrington, Melissa Roderick, Elaine Allensworth, Jenny Nagaoka, Tasha Seneca Keyes,David W. Johnson, and Nicole O. Beechum
 
 
A Note on Terminology
 
2
Noncognitive Factors
Chapter 1
3
The Promise o Noncognitive Factors
Chapter 2
8
Five Categories o Noncognitive Factors
Chapter 3
15
Evidence on Academic Behaviors
Chapter 4
20
Evidence on Academic Perseverance
 
Chapter 5
28
 
Evidence on Academic MindsetsACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to recognize the many people who contributed to this review. Ourresearch colleagues at the University o Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research and our practitionercolleagues at the Network or College Success gave critical eedback and helped us think through the implica-tions o the existing literature or both research and practice. We would particularly like to thank Eliza Moeller,Faye Kroshinksy, Kersti Azar, Ka Moragne, Thomas Kelley-Kemple, Mary Ann Pitcher, Sarah Howard, Rito Martinez,Jackie Lemon, Catherine Whiteld, LaKisha Pittman, Cecily Langord, Michael Kristovic, Sue Sporte, W. DavidStevens, Marisa de la Torre, Julia Gwynne, Bronwyn McDaniel, and Penny Bender Sebring or their eedback on ourmodel o noncognitive actors and their critical comments on and contributions to the report. We are indebted tomembers o the CCSR Steering Committee who provided substantive eedback on our research, particularlyLila Le and Kim Zalent. Angela Duckworth and David Yeager gave us very helpul critical commentary thatstrengthened our nal product. CCSR Associate Director or Communications, Emily Krone and Communicationsand Research Manager, Bronwyn McDaniel were instrumental in shepherding this through the production process.Welcome to baby Caroline Mary Phillips, whose conception and birth coincided very closely with the conceptionand delivery o this project.This work was supported by Lumina Foundation and Raikes Foundation. We thank them or their support andclose collaboration in this project.CITE AS:Farrington, C.A., Roderick, M., Allensworth, E., Nagaoka, J., Keyes, T.S., Johnson, D.W., & Beechum, N.O. (2012).
Teaching adolescents to become learners. The role of noncognitive factors in shaping school performance: A critical literature review.
Chicago: University o Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research.
Chapter 6
39
Evidence on Learning Strategies
Chapter 7
 
48
 
Evidence on Social Skills
 
Chapter 8
54
The Role o Noncognitive Factors inSchool Transitions
 
Chapter 9
72
 
Interpretive Summary
81
 
Reerences
 100
 
Endnotes
102
 
Appendix
TABLE OF CONTENTS
This report was produced by UChicago CCSR’s publicationsand communications sta: Emily Krone, Associate Director,Communications; Bronwyn McDaniel, Communications andResearch Manager; and Jessica Puller, Communications Specialist.Graphic Design by Je Hall DesignEditing by Ann Lindner06-12/pd/jh.design@rcn.com
 
 
The University o Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Researchcreated this report in partnership with Lumina Foundation andRaikes Foundation.We grateully acknowledge their substantive intellectualcontributions and nancial support.
1
RAIKES FOUNDATION
Raikes Foundation provides opportunities and supportduring adolescence to help young people become healthy,contributing adults with a special interest in improving out-comes or early adolescents (ages 10 to 14). As early adoles-cents transition into middle school, they enter a challengingdevelopmental period, the stakes or academic perormanceare higher, and their choices can have lielong impact. Thisis also a critical stage or identity development; young peo-ple establish belies about their capabilities and potential,develop patterns o behavior around learning, and cultivatethe relationships with peers and adults that impact theirsense o belonging. Raikes Foundation’s early adolescentgrantmaking aims to develop each young person’s agencyby building the mindsets and learning strategies thatsupport youth in productively persisting through middlegrades and on to college, career, and lie success. RaikesFoundation primarily invests in the development o pro-grams and practices, inside and outside the classroom, tointentionally build critical mindsets and learning strategiesamong low-income early adolescents. Raikes Foundationalso supports research and eorts to raise awareness othe importance o mindsets and learning strategies toyouth success.
LUMINA FOUNDATION
Lumina Foundation is committed to enrolling and gradu-ating more students rom college. It is the nation’s largestoundation dedicated exclusively to increasing students’access to and success in postsecondary education.Lumina’s mission is dened by Goal 2025—to increase thepercentage o Americans who hold high-quality degreesand credentials to 60 percent by 2025. Lumina pursuesthis goal in three ways: by identiying and supportingeective practice, by encouraging eective public policy,and by using communications and convening capacity tobuild public will or change. Lumina has worked with andmade grants to many colleges, universities, peer ounda-tions, associations, and other organizations that work toimprove student access and outcomes across the nation.
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGOCONSORTIUM ON CHICAGO SCHOOLRESEARCH
The University o Chicago Consortium on Chicago SchoolResearch (CCSR) conducts research o high technical qual-ity that can inorm and assess policy and practice in theChicago Public Schools. CCSR seeks to expand communi-cation among researchers, policymakers, and practitionersas it supports the search or solutions to the problems oschool reorm. CCSR encourages the use o research in pol-icy action and improvement o practice, but does not argueor particular policies or programs. Rather, CCSR research-ers help to build capacity or school reorm by identiyingwhat matters or student success and school improvement,creating critical indicators to chart progress, and conduct-ing theory-driven evaluation to identiy how programs andpolicies are working. A number o eatures distinguish CCSRrom more typical research organizations: a comprehensivedata archive, a ocus on one place—Chicago, engagementwith a diverse group o stakeholders, a wide range omethods and multiple investigators, and a commitment tosharing research ndings with diverse publics.
BACKGROUND OF THIS REPORT
Early in 2011, Program Ocers rom Lumina Foundationand Raikes Foundation approached researchers at CCSRabout undertaking a joint project, ocused on the role ononcognitive skills in students’ school perormance andeducational attainment. In addition to their nancial support,Lumina and Raikes brought their respective interests andexpertise in postsecondary attainment and middle gradeseducation. CCSR brought its trademark approach to schoolreorm: using research and data to identiy what matters orstudent success and school improvement, creating theory-driven rameworks or organizing the research evidence,and asking critical questions about the applicability oresearch to practice.

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