Learning Strategies and Mnemonics
1.PQR4 method (Preview, Question, Read, Reflect, Repeat, Review)
The PQ4R method is a method that individuals can use to help them better comprehendswritten material. It is a strategy that helps individuals focus on organising information in their minds and making it meaningful. The first factor in this strategy is Preview. At this stage of reading the reader determines a general topic of the text and divides the text into units neededlater at the Recite stage. Question formation is again present also in PQ4R strategy. Thistime, however, the four ‘R’s refer to Read, Reflect, Recite, Review. As the first, third andfourth factors have already been discussed, some attention shall now be devoted to Reflectfactor. While the reader reads the text, he should ponder on it, look for its reflection in reality,his own experience and background knowledge. Thus, the main aim of reflecting on the textis to understand it.
It helps to make individual to know what to learn. It focuses students’ attention,increasing interest, relating new ideas to previously known concepts and buildingcomprehension. The students are encouraged to actively interact with the material whilereading by the following
techniques. These help students to break chapters intoimportant
that are easier to assimilate than whole chapters. It also leads to a moreactive learning environment, and deeper processing of information
It requires the ability to skim texts which involve the rapid reading of chapter elements such as introduction, conclusion, summary, first and the last lines of paragraph, etc.It also requires the ability to scan texts which involves careful search for specific facts andexamples. This can be difficult for younger learners to practice this method.
A lesson designed to give students an active role before, during, and after reading is KWL:
ant to know, and
earn. According to Ogle (1989), KWL evolved as she and anumber of classroom teachers searched for a way to build active personal reading of expository text”. The before-reading stage of KWL consists of 4 steps: brainstorming,categorising, anticipating or predicting and questioning. Brainstorming begins when teacher
By Dk Etty Marliny bte Pg Rosli (08D0308)Diploma in Education (In-Service)