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PQR4 Method

PQR4 Method

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Published by Etty Marlyn
Learning strategies and Transfer of Learning for Miss Malai's coursework in UBD.
Learning strategies and Transfer of Learning for Miss Malai's coursework in UBD.

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Published by: Etty Marlyn on Apr 15, 2009
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12/22/2012

 
Learning Strategies and Mnemonics
1.PQR4 method (Preview, Question, Read, Reflect, Repeat, Review)
The PQ4R method is a method that individuals can use to help them better comprehendswritten material. It is a strategy that helps individuals focus on organising information in their minds and making it meaningful. The first factor in this strategy is Preview. At this stage of reading the reader determines a general topic of the text and divides the text into units neededlater at the Recite stage. Question formation is again present also in PQ4R strategy. Thistime, however, the four ‘R’s refer to Read, Reflect, Recite, Review. As the first, third andfourth factors have already been discussed, some attention shall now be devoted to Reflectfactor. While the reader reads the text, he should ponder on it, look for its reflection in reality,his own experience and background knowledge. Thus, the main aim of reflecting on the textis to understand it.
Advantages:
It helps to make individual to know what to learn. It focuses students’ attention,increasing interest, relating new ideas to previously known concepts and buildingcomprehension. The students are encouraged to actively interact with the material whilereading by the following
organizing 
techniques. These help students to break chapters intoimportant
chunks
that are easier to assimilate than whole chapters. It also leads to a moreactive learning environment, and deeper processing of information
Limitation:
It requires the ability to skim texts which involve the rapid reading of chapter elements such as introduction, conclusion, summary, first and the last lines of paragraph, etc.It also requires the ability to scan texts which involves careful search for specific facts andexamples. This can be difficult for younger learners to practice this method.
2.KWL method
A lesson designed to give students an active role before, during, and after reading is KWL:
now,
w
ant to know, and
l
earn. According to Ogle (1989), KWL evolved as she and anumber of classroom teachers searched for a way to build active personal reading of expository text”. The before-reading stage of KWL consists of 4 steps: brainstorming,categorising, anticipating or predicting and questioning. Brainstorming begins when teacher 
By Dk Etty Marliny bte Pg Rosli (08D0308)Diploma in Education (In-Service)
Page 1
 
Learning Strategies and Mnemonics
asks the class what they know about a topic. Responses are written on board and discussed. If a disagreement occurs or students seem puzzled by a statement, this cognitive conflict can beused to create a what-we-want-to-know question. Next, students categorize their prior knowledge. They also anticipate the content of the text and organise the information as theyread it. The process of categorisation is modelled as well as anticipating categories when brainstormed items already written on the board and placed in appropriate categories.Questions are then created. With questions in mind, students read the text. After reading, theclass discusses what they learned and the teacher writes their responses in the board.Information is organised, misconceptions are clarified, and emerging concepts are developedmore fully.
Advantages:
The group brainstorming activates prior knowledge so that students becomemore aware of what they know. But the ultimate purpose is to lead students to ask thesequestions automatically as they read.
Limitation:
The KWL approach can be simplified by omitting the category phase. Primarygrade teachers might use it strictly as a group technique until students have sufficient writingability to fill out the worksheet individually. Teachers have found that even just discussingwhat we know, we want to find out, and what we learned is helpful.
3.Method of Loci
The Method of Loci is a mnemonic device that dates back to Ancient Greek times. Greek orators (speakers) would use this method to help them memorize speeches. In order to use themethod of Loci, you must first imagine a place with which you are familiar. The term
loci
refer to places or 
locations
. There are several possible places you could use. You must be ableto identify several locations within that one place. It is best if these locations can be given alogical order, such as clockwise, or top to bottom. To retrieve the information, you mentally"stroll down memory lane" and visualize the same locations. If the method works, theinformation you stored in various locations will come back with the memory of the location.To be effective, one must usually visualize an object "doing something" or interacting insome way with the objects at a particular location (see the following section on interactiveimagery).
By Dk Etty Marliny bte Pg Rosli (08D0308)Diploma in Education (In-Service)
Page 2
 
Learning Strategies and Mnemonics
Advantage:
By employing the method of loci, we tend to remember more items than wewould ordinarily be able to.
Limitation:
The Method has limited utility because it requires certain task conditions. The presented words must be readily translatable into mentally pictured objects. The words must be presented slowly, not faster than one every three or four seconds. The Method breaksdown if we depart from considering, at any one time, only one imaged object and itscorresponding
locus
— for example, if we allow ourselves to notice relationships among the presented words.
4.Pegword Method
This method is one of the foundations of many improvement systems. Easily imaged wordsare memorised to represent numbers, usually those from 1 to 100, but sometimes more. Thesewords can then replace the numbers when memorising a long list in order. The person forms amental image linking together the peg word and the item to be memorised. Subsequently,when recall is required, the memoriser recalls the peg word, which cues the image which inturn cues the recalls of the item.
Advantages:
The advantage over the loci method comes from the relative ease in findingsuitable peg words as compared to loci when large numbers are required. Also, the pegmethod allows recall in any order without problems in losing one’s place. Morris and Reid(1970) found that a peg system doubled recall compared to a control group and did notobserve problems when same pegs are used for learning six consecutive reordering of thesame items
Limitations:
The need to memorise the peg words, but that it minimised by rules such as the phonetic translation system which specify sounds for digits so that an easily learned logicunderlies the construction of most sets of peg words. If, however, the list of words is longer than ten, you must come up with and memorize a longer reference list.
5.Chain Mnemonics
By Dk Etty Marliny bte Pg Rosli (08D0308)Diploma in Education (In-Service)
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