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Bio-diesel production

Bio-diesel production

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Published by Pankaj Nikhare
Bio-diesel production from OFR reactor in 15 minutes
Bio-diesel production from OFR reactor in 15 minutes

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Published by: Pankaj Nikhare on May 21, 2013
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Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN0976-7916
 
JERS/Vol. III/ Issue I/January-March, 2012/144-148
 
Research Paper
METHANOLYSIS OF HIGH FFA KARANJA OIL IN ANOSCILLATORY BAFFLED REACTOR 
Y.C.Bhattacharyulu*, V.N.Ganvir, S.A.Bahegankar, Pankaj Nikhare
 
Address for Correspondence
Department of Petroleum Refining & Petrochemical Technology,Laxminarayan Institute of Technology, Nagpur 
ABSTRACT
India currently imports about 70% of its petroleum requirements, spending more on foreign exchange. Vegetable oils havethe potential to be considered as an appropriate alternative fuel as their properties are similar to that of diesel. The major  problem associated with the direct use of vegetable oils is its high viscosity. One possible method to overcome this problemis transesterification of potential oils to produce esters i.e. biodiesel. Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel that is producedfrom vegetable oils and animal fats. It consists of the monoalkyl esters formed by a catalyzed reaction of the triglycerides inthe oil or fat with a simple monohydric alcohol. Oscillatory baffled reactors are a novel type of reactor, it consisting of tubecontaining equally spaced orifice plate baffles. An oscillatory motion is superimposed upon the net flow of the process fluid,creating flow patterns conducive to efficient heat and mass transfer. That’s why in oscillatory flow reactor the reaction timeis less that is 10 minutes at temperature in range of 20
o
C-25
o
C compared to batch reactor. Batch reactor takes minimum 1 hr and at temperature of about 50
o
C -55
o
C for reaction under similar conditions
.
 KEYWORDS
 
Biodiesel, oscillatory baffled reactor, transesterification, triglycerides, viscosity.
INTRODUCTION TO BIODIESEL
Increased environmental concerns, tougher clean air act standards and depletion of fossil fuels, necessitatethe search for a viable alternative fuel, which is moreenvironment friendly [1].Majority of the worldsenergy needs are supplied through petrochemicalsources, coal and natural gases, with the exception of hydroelectricity and nuclear energy, of all, thesesources are finite and at current usage rates will beconsumed shortly [2]. The depleting reserves of fossilfuels, increasing demands for diesels and uncertaintyin their availability is considered to be the importanttrigger for many initiatives to search for thealternative source of energy, which can supplementor replace fossil fuels [3]. Hence it is important tosearch for an alternate low cost fuel for every dayusage which should be sustainable and also friendlyto the environment. The use of vegetable oils asalternative fuels has been around for 100 years whenthe inventor of the diesel engine Rudolph Diesel firsttested peanut oil, in his compression ignition engine.[5]It is interesting to note that Rudolph Diesel in the preface of his patent of 1912 wrote “Use of vegetableoil for engine fuel may seem insignificant today butsuch oil may become in the course of time ,asimportant as petroleum”.[18 ]Among the many possible sources biodiesel derivedfrom vegetable oil attracts attention as a promisingone for substitution or blending with conventionaldiesel based fuel [4].According to the
AmericanSociety for Testing and Materials
(ASTM)’sdefinition biodiesel is monoalkyl esters of long chainfatty acid derived from a renewable feedstock, suchas vegetable oil animal fats and used cooking oils[5].Bio diesel is a liquid ; ester-based oxygenatedfuel, similar to petroleum based diesel fuel but madefrom vegetable products ; either plants oils or animalfats.[17]. Bio diesel, having the chemical structure of fatty acid alkyl esters, is a clean burning fuel produced from renewable domestic sources such asvegetable oils and animal grease. It is biodegradable,non-inflammable, non-toxic and has a favorablecombustion–emission profile, producing much lesscarbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and unburnedhydrocarbons than petroleum-based diesel [6]. Biodiesel is usually produced from food-grade vegetableoils that are more expensive than diesel fuel.Therefore, biodiesel produced from food-gradevegetable oil is currently not economically feasible.Waste cooking oils, restaurant grease ,animal fats andnon edible oils are potential feedstock for biodiesel.[8]
Table.1.1. List of different Feed stokes forBiodiesel production [3]:
Pongamia, Jatropha and Neem based methyl esters(biodiesel) can be directly used in diesel engineswithout any engine modifications [7].Karanja(Pongamia pinnata) is an underutilized plant which isgrown in many parts of India. The main productionarea for the Karanja oil is in the village level andvillagers use this oil in some of their daily activities[10]. Karanja oil is one of the potential oils with
 
Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN0976-7916
 
JERS/Vol. III/ Issue I/January-March, 2012/144-148
 
yearly production of 200 t (metric ton), out of which6% is being presently utilized .[11] The karanja oilcontains primarily eight fatty acids viz. palmitic,stearic, oleic, linoleic, lignoceric, eicosenoic,arachidic and behenic. Of these, the four which arecommonly found in most oils, including Pongamia,are the saturated acids, palmitic and stearic and theunsaturated acids, oleic and linoleic[12]. The freshlyextracted Karanja oil is yellowish orange to brownand rapidly darkens on storage. It has a disagreeableodor and bitter taste. The presence of toxicXavonoids makes the oil non-edible [13] .India’stransportation fuel requirements are unique in theworld. India consumes almost five times more dieselfuel than gasoline, whereas, almost all other countriesin the world use more gasoline than diesel fuel.Diesel burns roughly 64 Mt, or 450 million barrels, ayear, as opposed to about 84 million barrels of Gasoline. So there is much importance for searchingalternate to petro-diesel. At present, India is producing only 30% of the total petroleum fuelneeded. The remaining 70% is being imported whichcost about Rs 80000 cr. every year .[19]Following table shows oil producing species in india[3]In this paper discussion is made on production of  biodiesel in oscillatory baffled reactor. Oscillatory baffled reactors are used in biodiesel production, itconsisting of tube containing equally spaced orifice plate baffles. An oscillatory motion is superimposedupon the net flow of the process fluid, creating flow patterns conducive to efficient heat and mass transfer,whilst maintaining plug flow [14]. That’s why inoscillatory flow reactor the reaction time is less thatis 10 minutes at temperature in range of 20
o
C-25
o
Ccompared to batch reactor. Batch reactor takesminimum 1 hr and at temperature of about 50
o
C -55
o
C for reaction under similar conditions.
Apparatus and experimental setup
Oscillatory baffled reactors are a novel type of reactor, consisting of tubes containing equally spacedorifice plate baffles.These reactors exploit theuniform and efficient vortex mixing that can beachieved when an oscillatory fluid motion interactswith orifice plate baffles in a tube. Effective andenergy efficient heat transfer can be obtained byoscillatory flow mixing for both the batch fluidoscillation situation and for the batch baffleoscillation, due to the mechanisms of vortexinteraction.[15].The Oscillatory baffled reactor inshows a new relatively mixing device that is basedupon superimposing periodic fluid oscillationswithin a cylindrical column containing equallyspaced orifice baffles and schematic of baffle areshown in.
 Figure 1: Assembly of the Oscillatory Flow MixReactor for Biodiesel Production
 The mechanism of mixing in the OFR is illustratedin which shows two half cycles over an oscillation period. Vortices are formed behind baffles on anupstroke, drawing fluid from near the walls into theeddies. On the reverse stroke, the vortices formed are pushed into the central region of the device whilenew vortices are generated at the same time behindthe opposite baffles, and the cycle repeats. This provides an effective way to move fluid from thewall of the device to the centre, and leads to theaxial velocity components being of the same order of magnitude as the radial ones.[16].
Figure 2 : Mechanism of mixing in an oscillatorybaffled column[16]
 
Properties of karanja oilExperimental Procedure:
.
 
Since the FFA contents of Karanja oil collected ishigh, a two step process, i.e., acid catalyzedesterification followed by based- catalyzedtransesterification process is selected for converting itinto methyl ester. This is to avoid the problem of saponification. The first step, i.e., acid catalyzedesterification is for the reduction of FFA, which ismainly a pretreatment process. The process usedsulphuric acid as acid catalyst. Once the FFAcontents in Karanja oil reduces to the base catalysttransesterification is applied to get biodiesel.
 
Journal of Engineering Research and Studies E-ISSN0976-7916
 
JERS/Vol. III/ Issue I/January-March, 2012/144-148
 
Karanja oil is contaminated with water and solid particles. Solid portion of Karanja oil is removed byfiltering using a filter paper. Water is removed bymixing Karanja oil with silica gel followed bystirring the mixture and filtering with filter paper.This step is conducted twice to ensure completeremoval of water. Then the Karanja oil is processedthrough two step process.
Step – 1Sulfuric Acid Catalyzed Pre-treatment Step:
1.
 
Karanja oil is filtered with filter paper toremove impurities. It is then mixed withsilica gel for 15 min and filtered. This willreduce the water content of oil.
 
2.
 
100 ml of Karanja oil is poured into thereactor.3.
 
The mixture of concentrated sulphuric acidwith methanol is then added into the reactor and the oscillations are started.4.
 
Oscillations are carried out for 10 min atroom temperature.5.
 
Mixture is settled for 6-8 hours.6.
 
Two layers are formed. Upper layer istreated oil with lower acid value.Different methanol to oil molar ratio (6:1 , 9:1,12:1)and H
2
SO
4
wt% (1, 2,3,4 and 5 vol%) were used toinvestigate their influence on the acid value of theKaranja oil. The optimum condition having lowestacid value was used for the main transesterificationusing KOH & NAOH as catalyst.
Step – 2Base (KOH) Catalysed Transesterification:
1.
 
Treated Karanja oil is filtered with filter  paper to remove impurities.
 
2.
 
Treated Karanja oil is poured into thereactor.3.
 
The mixture of potassium hydroxide withmethanol is then added into the reactor andthe oscillations are started.4.
 
Oscillations are carried out for 10 min atroom temperature.5.
 
Mixture is settled for 6-8 hours.Two layers are formed. Upper layer is methyl ester with lower acid value and bottom layer is glycerol.
 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONRun SummaryCatalyst used: H
2
SO
4
 Reactiontime:10 minutesFirst stage:
RunNo.Catalystconc.(vol%)Amountof oil(ml)Amount of Methanol(ml)MoleratioAmountof BiodieselLowerlayer(ml)Density(gm/ml)Viscosity(cSt)Acid Value(mg of KOH/gm of Sample)Flashpoint
O
C
1a 1 100 27 1:6 89 7 0.9108 34.117 3.569 1302a 2 100 27 1:6 92 15 0.9115 36.934 5.563 1343a 3 100 27 1:6 87 15 0.9242 37.560 5.099 1334a 4 100 27 1:6 87 18 0.9147 37.247 6.119 1255a 5 100 27 1:6 82 21 0.9270 39.125 6.629 140
6a 1 100 39 1:9 95 18 0.8675 31.340 3.059 134
7a 2 100 39 1:9 92 14 0.8719 33.960 3.824 1348a 3 100 39 1:9 91 24 0.8916 35.995 5.864 1459a 4 100 39 1:9 93 24 0.8904 34.586 6.374 12310a 5 100 39 1:9 88 30 0.8977 35.838 7.139 13411a 1 100 52 1:12 104 21 0.9148 31.926 6.887 13412a 2 100 52 1:12 101 22 0.9145 33.021 7.379 13413a 3 100 52 1:12 98 33 0.9168 33.804 7.134 13414a 4 100 52 1:12 104 39 0.9146 33.647 8.118 13415a 5 100 52 1:12 107 34 0.9182 34.117 8.364 134
Second stage:Reaction time: 10minutesCatalyst used: KOH
RunNo.CatalystConc.(wt%)MoleratioBiodieselcollectedUpper layer (ml)GlycerinLowerlayer (ml)Density(gm/ml)Viscosity(cSt)Acid value (mgof KOH/gm of sample)Flash point
O
C
1b 0.3 1:9 85 22 0.883 9.634 0.1501 1552b 0.4 1:9 84 20 0.875 7.947 0.1751 1503b 0.5 1:9 80 20 0.876 7.379 0.2202 1464b 0.6 1:9 83 18 0.876 6.792 0.2012 1405b 0.7 1:9 83 21 0.868 5.859 0.2005 1386b 0.8 1:9 80 20 0.864 5.605 0.1825 1357b 0.9 1:9 84 21 0.862 5.365 0.1276 133
8b 1 1:9 95 20 0.862 5.316
0.1273
 130
DISCUSSIONKaranja oil methyl ester in an oscillatory flowreactor:-
In this topic, effect of various parameters like oil tomethanol ratio, concentration of catalyst on quality of  biodiesel produced in terms of kinematic viscosity,density and acid value are discussed for karanja oilmethyl ester in an oscillatory flow reactor operated ina batch mode.
1) Effect of molar ratio on properties of treatedKaranja oil for first stage:-
 

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