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Sugar Cane's Energy - Chapters 7-8

Sugar Cane's Energy - Chapters 7-8

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Published by SugarcaneBlog
Sugar Cane's Energy
Twelve studies on Brazilian sugar cane agribusiness and its sustainability
Isaias de Carvalho Macedo, Editor
This book condensed the insights of leading researchers and scientists, producers and officials related to Brazil's ethanol industry into a more in-depth panorama of the complex interactions between the biofuel sector and the environment, society and the economy.

Chapter 1: Share in the use of fossil energy
Chapter 2: Impacts on the use of materials
Chapter 3: Impacts on air quality: cities and rural areas
Chapter 4: Impacts on global climate: greenhouse gas emissions
Chapter 5: Impacts on the water supply
Chapter 6: Soil occupation: new production areas and biodiversity
Chapter 7: Preservation of agricultural soils
Chapter 8: Use of agrochemicals
Chapter 9: Use of fertilizers
Chapter 10: Varieties and protection from diseases and pests
Chapter 11: Competitiveness of Brazil’s sugar cane agribusiness
Chapter 12: Jobs and income

Foreword by Eduardo Pereira de Carvalho
São Paulo :Berlendis & Vertecchia
UNICA – União da Agroindústria Canavieira do Estado de São Paulo, 2005.

Translation: Walter Heinrich Rudolph Frank and Marcio Mendonça; Revision Flávio Devienne Ferreira and Cory Willis

Título original:A Energia da Cana-de-Açúcar – Doze estudos sobre a agroindústria da cana-de-açúcar no Brasil e sua sustentabilidade. 1.Agribusiness - Brasil 2.Agricultura sustentável 3.Cana-de-açúcar - Indústria e comércio - Brasil 4.Impacto ambiental - Estudos 5.Meio ambiente 6.Recursos naturais I.Macedo, Isaias de Carvalho.II.Carvalho,Eduardo Pereira de.

Sugar Cane's Energy
Twelve studies on Brazilian sugar cane agribusiness and its sustainability
Isaias de Carvalho Macedo, Editor
This book condensed the insights of leading researchers and scientists, producers and officials related to Brazil's ethanol industry into a more in-depth panorama of the complex interactions between the biofuel sector and the environment, society and the economy.

Chapter 1: Share in the use of fossil energy
Chapter 2: Impacts on the use of materials
Chapter 3: Impacts on air quality: cities and rural areas
Chapter 4: Impacts on global climate: greenhouse gas emissions
Chapter 5: Impacts on the water supply
Chapter 6: Soil occupation: new production areas and biodiversity
Chapter 7: Preservation of agricultural soils
Chapter 8: Use of agrochemicals
Chapter 9: Use of fertilizers
Chapter 10: Varieties and protection from diseases and pests
Chapter 11: Competitiveness of Brazil’s sugar cane agribusiness
Chapter 12: Jobs and income

Foreword by Eduardo Pereira de Carvalho
São Paulo :Berlendis & Vertecchia
UNICA – União da Agroindústria Canavieira do Estado de São Paulo, 2005.

Translation: Walter Heinrich Rudolph Frank and Marcio Mendonça; Revision Flávio Devienne Ferreira and Cory Willis

Título original:A Energia da Cana-de-Açúcar – Doze estudos sobre a agroindústria da cana-de-açúcar no Brasil e sua sustentabilidade. 1.Agribusiness - Brasil 2.Agricultura sustentável 3.Cana-de-açúcar - Indústria e comércio - Brasil 4.Impacto ambiental - Estudos 5.Meio ambiente 6.Recursos naturais I.Macedo, Isaias de Carvalho.II.Carvalho,Eduardo Pereira de.

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Published by: SugarcaneBlog on Apr 16, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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3
P
IMENTEL
, D.; K
RUMMEL
, J.: “Biomass energy andsoil erosion: assessmentof resource costs”;Biomass, vol. 14, 1987,pp.15-38, cited inR
 ANNEY
, J.W.: “Environ-mental considerations inenergy crop production”,Biomass and Bioenergy,vol. 6, no. 3, 1994
2
L
IMA
, M.A.:
Opor-tunidades: potencial deneg
ó
cios em agro-pecu
á
ria, florestas, ener-gia e res
í
duos
, NT Solose Pecu
á
ria,
EMBRAPA
, 2003
4
R
OSSETTO
, R.:
 A culturada cana, da degrada
çã
o
à
conserva
çã
o
, Vis
ã
o Agr
í
cola,
ESALQ
-
USP
, Ano1, Jan 2004
139
1
R
 ANNEY
, J.W.; M
 ANN
,L.K.:
Environmentalconsiderations in energycrop production
, Bio-mass and Bioenergy, vol.6, no. 3, 1994
Chapter 7:Preservation of agricultural soil
7.1Introduction
Changes in the use of soil usually change the soil organic carbon content.Each type of occupation, soil and handling has a long-term
equilibrium
rate. For example, the equilibrium rate for forests with forestry activities isestimated at 45 t carbon / ha; for wood with fast rotation, 35 t / ha; and forgrains,
1
25 t / ha in the United States (the periods for equilibrium extendingfor dozens of years).In the more general case of soil that used to be covered with forests(including
cerrado
vegetation) and were turned into pastures, there is a cleartrend towards a decrease in the carbon content of the soil. There are studiesinvolving direct planting practices for use with grains, showing that anappropriate handling allows the contents to be near those found in forests.
2
In Brazil, 59 percent of the soil is latosol and clay soil, where 39 to 70percent of the organic carbon is stored up to 30 cm deep, with great spacialvariations. The growth of sugar cane crops is incorporating poorer areas(mostly extensive pastures) and shall contribute to the recovery of the soilthrough the addition of fertilizers and corrective substances, also includingvinasse, filtercake and trash. This will lead to higher levels of carbon in thesoil and decreased erosion.Soil erosion loss is a serious problem, depending on the kind of crop, theagricultural practices, the soil type and the rainfall pattern. Pimentel
3
estimatedthe mean loss of soil due to erosion in the annual agricultural production in theUnited States at 18.1 t / ha. Corn (21.8 t / ha), soybean (40.9) and wheat (14.1)typically show high rates, whereas the rate for permanent crops and hay (uponestablishment) is 0.2, and rotation forests 2 to 4 t / ha.Today the sugar cane culture in Brazil is renowned for its relatively smallsoil erosion loss (compared with soybean and corn, for example). Thissituation keeps improving as harvesting without burning expands, therebyreducing losses to very low rates, comparable to those for direct planting inannual cultures.
4
Recent sugar cane expansion in Brazil has happenedmostly in poor soils (pasture land and strongly anthropizedcerrados), contributing for their improvement with the addi-tion of organic matter and fertilizers. Erosion losses aresmaller than in many other important cultures; it is expectedthat the growing harvesting of cane without burning will fur-ther improve this condition, with the use of the remainingtrash in the soil.
 
7.2
Soil used for sugar cane growing in Brazil; expansion tends
 Jorge Luis Donzelli
Sugar Cane Technology CenterBrazil covers a total area of 8.5 million km
2
, and as a result, it has a widevariety of soil and climates (rainfall conditions). This makes any potentialproduction study highly complex. In the total area, 84 percent of the soil hasacidity problems (soil with high concentrations of aluminum and, on a smallerscale, iron and manganese), 16 percent lack oxygen certain times of the year, 7percent is shallow soil, 2 percent is soil with high concentrations of salts, and 9percent is soil with no relevant limitations on agricultural exploitation.
5
Leavingout of account the slopes where the soil is located, which can be a limiting factorto agricultural use, Brazil has a huge production/productivity potential whenadvanced agricultural handling practices are in place. As a matter of fact, the successful agricultural occupation of the soil in theBrazilian
cerrado
over the past fifteen years has been supported by theapplication of advanced agricultural technology. The soils found in the largeagricultural border formed by the
cerrados
in Brazil
s Center-West region arelisted in
Table 1
:
5
 A
MARAL
, F.C.S., P
EREIRA
N.R.; C
 ARVALHO
 J
R
., W.:
Principais limita
çõ
es dossolos do Brasil
,
EMBRAPA
Solos, site: www.cnps.embrapa.br/solosbr/ (2004), Rio de Janeiro,1999
6
L
OPES
, A.S.:
Solos sobcerrado, características, propriedades e manejo
,Piracicaba, Instituto daPotassa & Fosfato -Instituto Internacional daPotassa, 1983
8
G
OEDERT
, W.J.:
Solosdos cerrados: tecnologiase estrat
é
gias de manejo
,
in
: G
OEDERT
, W.J. (Ed.):S
ã
o Paulo
Nobel,
EMBRAPA
, Centro dePesquisa Agropecu
á
riados Cerrados, Bras
í
lia,1986
7
M
 ALAVOLTA
, E.;K
LIEMANN
, H.J.:
Desordensnutricionais no cerrado
,Piracicaba, Potaf 
ó
s, 1985
Sugar cane
s energy
140
TTable 1:able 1:
 Approximate distribution of the largest soil units in the
cerrados
SourSource:ce:
Notes
6
,
7
,
8
Soil types Area(million ha)Occupation(%)OrderSub-orderGroupLatosolRed yellow77.438.0Red20.610.1Ferric red7.33.6Plintosols18.99.3Neosol Arenic37.718.5Lithic17.08.4Clay soilsRed yellowDystrophic1.90.9Eutrophic7.33.6NitosolRed3.51.7Cambisol Haplite 6.13.0Gleysol4.12.0Others1.80.9Total203.8100.0
 
On the other hand, a study conducted for the purpose of assessing thepotential for agriculture in western S
ã
o Paulo
9
using images provided by theLandsat 7 satellite and field work based on determinations of 
IAC
,
10
hasmapped the use and physicochemical properties of the soil coveringapproximately 583,200 hectares in two representative locations of the currentsugar cane expansion areas within S
ã
o Paulo State. It concluded that the vastmajority of soil (or soil combinations) found in that region are the same asthat found in the agricultural border formed by the
cerrados
in Brazil
s Center- West region in terms of classification (unit, fertility and texture). The meansoil fertility in the sampled areas (V% = base saturation index) for soil coveredby pastures and sugar cane and corn crops, decreases, as shown:The occupation of areas in the Brazilian
cerrado
have led to the followingsoil use distribution
11
: At least two classes,
non-
cerrado
and
highly anthropized
cerrado
, canbe used for sustainable agriculture with no deforestation required, as they areareas that have already been occupied, probably with some kind of crop orpasture. The total area of the
cerrados
,
8-11
i.e. 2.0 million km
2
, and
Non-
cerrado
49.11%Non-anthropized16.77% Anthropized17.45%Highly anthropized16.72%
9
D
ONZELLI
, J.L.; J
OAQUIM
, A.C.; S
IM
Õ
ES
, M.S.;S
OUZA
, S.A.V.:
Plano deexpans
ã
o da UsinaCatanduva
, Piracicaba,Centro de TecnologiaCanavieira (Internalreport), 2003a
10
IAC
Instituto Agron
ô
mico/CentroNacional de Pesquisa deSolos:
Mapa pedol
ó
gicodo Estado de S
ã
o Paulo
,Campinas, 1999
11
M
 ACHADO
, R.B.;R
 AMOS
N
ETO
, M.B.;P
EREIRA
, P.G.P.; C
 ALDAS
,E.F.; G
ON
Ç
 ALVES
, D.A.;S
 ANTOS
, N.S.; T
 ABOR
, K.;S
TEINIGER
, M.:
Estima-tivas de perda de
á
rea docerrado brasileiro
, Tech-nical report, site:www.conservation.org.br/arquivos/ 
RelatDesmatamCerrado.pdf 
Bras
í
lia, Conserva
çã
oInternacional, 2004
Chapter 7: Preservation of agricultural soil
141
TTable 2:able 2:
Mean soil fertility for different kinds of useSugar caneCornPastureLayerAAAP resinmg / dm
3
222M. O.g / dm
3
9118pH4,94,94,4Kmmol / dm
3
1,61,10,7Ca11126Mg553 Al224SB171810CTC343527 V%505036
8
see p. 140

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