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Sugar Cane's Energy - Chapter 9

Sugar Cane's Energy - Chapter 9

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Published by SugarcaneBlog
Sugar Cane's Energy
Twelve studies on Brazilian sugar cane agribusiness and its sustainability
Isaias de Carvalho Macedo, Editor
This book condensed the insights of leading researchers and scientists, producers and officials related to Brazil's ethanol industry into a more in-depth panorama of the complex interactions between the biofuel sector and the environment, society and the economy.

Chapter 1: Share in the use of fossil energy
Chapter 2: Impacts on the use of materials
Chapter 3: Impacts on air quality: cities and rural areas
Chapter 4: Impacts on global climate: greenhouse gas emissions
Chapter 5: Impacts on the water supply
Chapter 6: Soil occupation: new production areas and biodiversity
Chapter 7: Preservation of agricultural soils
Chapter 8: Use of agrochemicals
Chapter 9: Use of fertilizers
Chapter 10: Varieties and protection from diseases and pests
Chapter 11: Competitiveness of Brazil’s sugar cane agribusiness
Chapter 12: Jobs and income

Foreword by Eduardo Pereira de Carvalho
São Paulo :Berlendis & Vertecchia
UNICA – União da Agroindústria Canavieira do Estado de São Paulo, 2005.

Translation: Walter Heinrich Rudolph Frank and Marcio Mendonça; Revision Flávio Devienne Ferreira and Cory Willis

Título original:A Energia da Cana-de-Açúcar – Doze estudos sobre a agroindústria da cana-de-açúcar no Brasil e sua sustentabilidade. 1.Agribusiness - Brasil 2.Agricultura sustentável 3.Cana-de-açúcar - Indústria e comércio - Brasil 4.Impacto ambiental - Estudos 5.Meio ambiente 6.Recursos naturais I.Macedo, Isaias de Carvalho.II.Carvalho,Eduardo Pereira de.

Sugar Cane's Energy
Twelve studies on Brazilian sugar cane agribusiness and its sustainability
Isaias de Carvalho Macedo, Editor
This book condensed the insights of leading researchers and scientists, producers and officials related to Brazil's ethanol industry into a more in-depth panorama of the complex interactions between the biofuel sector and the environment, society and the economy.

Chapter 1: Share in the use of fossil energy
Chapter 2: Impacts on the use of materials
Chapter 3: Impacts on air quality: cities and rural areas
Chapter 4: Impacts on global climate: greenhouse gas emissions
Chapter 5: Impacts on the water supply
Chapter 6: Soil occupation: new production areas and biodiversity
Chapter 7: Preservation of agricultural soils
Chapter 8: Use of agrochemicals
Chapter 9: Use of fertilizers
Chapter 10: Varieties and protection from diseases and pests
Chapter 11: Competitiveness of Brazil’s sugar cane agribusiness
Chapter 12: Jobs and income

Foreword by Eduardo Pereira de Carvalho
São Paulo :Berlendis & Vertecchia
UNICA – União da Agroindústria Canavieira do Estado de São Paulo, 2005.

Translation: Walter Heinrich Rudolph Frank and Marcio Mendonça; Revision Flávio Devienne Ferreira and Cory Willis

Título original:A Energia da Cana-de-Açúcar – Doze estudos sobre a agroindústria da cana-de-açúcar no Brasil e sua sustentabilidade. 1.Agribusiness - Brasil 2.Agricultura sustentável 3.Cana-de-açúcar - Indústria e comércio - Brasil 4.Impacto ambiental - Estudos 5.Meio ambiente 6.Recursos naturais I.Macedo, Isaias de Carvalho.II.Carvalho,Eduardo Pereira de.

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Published by: SugarcaneBlog on Apr 16, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/11/2014

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163
1
FAO
: Faostat Database 2004,
http://faostat.fao.org/ faostat , Feb 2005
Chapter 9:Use of fertilizers
9.1Introduction
 Although Brazilian agriculture has been going through a greatexpansion period over the past few decades, and has reached a high level of competitiveness in export markets, it is not characterized by an intensive useof fertilizers in general. In 1998, the mean use intensity (kg / ha N-P
2
O
5
-K
2
O) was equivalent to that of the United States and Venezuela, around 40percent of the intensity in France or China, and 22 percent of that of theNetherlands. In terms of total consumption, Brazil had
1
an annualconsumption of 7.68 Mt in 2002, representing around 5.4 percent of thetotal world consumption. At the same time, the United States used 13.7percent, France used 2.8 percent, China 28.1 percent, India 11.4 percent,and Europe 15.5 percent.The impact of fertilizers on water quality depends on many useconditions. Fertilization with nitrogen, sandy soil, irrigated soil, and soil withshallow water tables, are more vulnerable to nitrate contamination. Thepotential of nitrogen for reaching and contaminating water also depends onthe quantity used, the use by the plant, the level of nutrients and organicmatter in the soil, and the weather.In the case of sugar cane crops in Brazil, an important characteristic is thefull recycling of waste to the field. The rise in ethanol production required thevinasse to be taken care of. The solution was to recycle it for the crop. Thebenefits provided by this ferti-irrigation have become evident, and anoptimization of potassium utilization was sought and yielded very favorableresults. The infrastructure created has enabled the development to use the waterfrom the industrial process and the ashes from boilers. Filtercake recyclingprocesses were also developed, thereby increasing the supply of nutrients to thefield. Recycling is addressed in this chapter because of its ability to reduce theneed for external mineral fertilizers, and also from an environmental standpoint,i.e. water quality protection. The evolution of the applicable legislation has been
 Among Brazil’s large crops (area larger than 1 Mha),sugar cane uses smaller amounts of fertilizers than cotton,coffee and oranges, and is equivalent to soybean crops inthis respect. The amount of fertilizers used is also smallcompared to sugar cane crops in other countries: Australiauses 48 percent more. The most significant factor is nutri-ent recycling through the application of industrial wastes,as vinasse and filtercake.
 
2
D
EMATT
Ê
, J.L.I.:
Recupera
çã
o e manu-ten
çã
o da fertilidade dossolos
, Vis
ã
o Agr
í
cola,
ESALQ
-
USP
, Ano 1, Jan2004
4
L
OPES
, A.S.; G
UILHER
-
ME
, L.R.G.; S
ILVA
, C.A.P.:
 A vocação da terra
, S
ã
oPaulo,
 ANDA
, 2
nd
ed.,2003, 23 p.
Sugar cane
s energy
164
3
FAO
Food and Agriculture Organizationof the United Nations:
Use of fertilizer by cropsin Brazil. based on Alfredo Scheid Lopes
,Land and Plant NutritionManagement Service
Land and WaterDevelopment Division,Rome, 2004
 Agrovegetal productionFertilizer consumption2001000500400300
   1   9   7   0   1   9   7   5   1   9   8   0   1   9   8   5   1   9   9   0   1   9   9   5   2   0   0   0   2   0   0   2
Index 100:1972
very important and appropriate in this respect to the leading producing areas,such as S
ã
o Paulo. Another interesting aspect of the sugar cane culture in Brazil is that themean nitrogen extraction by the crops is much higher than the fertilizer doseused in the first harvesting season. For example, besides the N mineralized inthe crop and organic matter remainders on the soil, an explanation that hasbeen investigated is the fixation of several bacteria in the rhizosphere androots. The advanced uses of this possibility are the subject of studies.
2
9.2The use of fertilizers in Brazil’s sugar cane production
 Jorge Luis Donzelli
Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira (Sugar Cane Technology Center)For the most part, the nutrient balance in Brazilian agriculture (taken asa whole) is unsatisfactory. In other words, the amount of nutrients taken islarger than the amount applied. The soil is progressively impoverished interms of nutrients. Persisting in the long term, this would become a threat tothe sustainability of agriculture.
3
On the other hand, both productivity andfertilizer consumption have increased
4
in Brazil over the past three decades(
Figure 1
).
FigurFigure 1:e 1:
 Agricultural production and fertilizer consumption in Brazil
4
 
The use of fertilizers and the technological developments in agriculturehave reduced the need to open new areas. Obtaining the 2002/03 agriculturalproduction with the same productivity as in 1970/71 would require anadditional area of around 71 million hectares (
Figure 2
).
FigurFigure 2:e 2:
 Agricultural production and productivity in Brazil andspared additional area
Of all crops in Brazil that cover an area in excess of 1 million hectares,sugar cane crops rank fourth on a list of 10 users fertilizer use intensity(
Table 1
), with 460 kg of a mean formula of N-P
2
O
5
-K
2
O per hectare.
5
Sugar cane crops in Brazil use a low level of fertilizers compared to othercountries. In Australia, the ratoon and plant sugar cane fertilization levels are30 and 54 percent higher than in Brazil, respectively, especially in nitrogenapplication, with doses of up to 200 kg / ha (
Table 2
).
5
 ANDA
Associa
çã
oNacional para Difus
ã
o de Adubos:
 Anu
á
rio esta-t
í
stico do setor de ferti-lizantes: 1987-2003
, S
ã
oPaulo, 2003, p. 34
Chapter 9: Use of fertilizers
165
Spared areaUsed area
   A  r  e  a   (  m   i   l   l   i  o  n   h  a   )
400208060140120100
   7   0   /   7   1   7   5   /   7   6   8   0   /   8   1   8   5   /   8   6   9   0   /   9   1   9   5   /   9   6   9   6   /   9   7   9   7   /   9   8   9   8   /   9   9   9   9   /   0   0   0   0   /   0   1   0   1   /   0   2   0   2   /   0   3

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