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Advanced Ic Engines unit 5

Advanced Ic Engines unit 5

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Published by Ravi Rajan

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Published by: Ravi Rajan on May 22, 2013
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Common rail direct fuel injection
is a modern variant of directfuel injectionsystem for  petrol anddiesel engines.On diesel engines, it features a high- pressure(over 1,000 bar /15,000  psi
)fuel railfeeding individual solenoid valves,as opposed to low-pressure fuel pump feeding unit injectors(Pumpe/Düse or pump nozzles). Third- generation common rail diesels now feature piezoelectricinjectors for increased precision, with fuel pressuresup to 1,800 bar /26,000  psi. Ingasoline engines,it is used in gasoline direct injectionengine technology. Solenoid or   piezoelectricvalves make possible fineelectronic controlover the fuel injection time and quantity, and the higher pressure that the common rail technology makes available provides better fuelatomisation.In order to lower enginenoise, the engine's electronic control unit can inject a small amount of diesel just before the main injection event ("pilot" injection), thusreducing its explosiveness and vibration, as well asoptimising injection timing and quantity fovariations in fuel quality, cold starting and so on.Some advanced common rail fuel systems performas many as five injections per stroke.Common rail engines require very short (< 10second) or no heating-up time at all, dependent onambient temperature, and produce lower enginenoise and emissions than older systems.Diesel engines have historically used various formsof fuel injection. Two common types include theunit injection system and the distributor/inline pump systems (See diesel engine andunit injector  for more information). While these older systems provided accurate fuel quantity andinjection timing control, they were limited byseveral factors:
They were cam driven, and injection pressure was proportional to engine speed. This typically meantthat the highest injection pressure could only be achieved at the highest engine speed and the maximumachievable injection pressure decreased as engine speed decreased. This relationship is true with all pumps,even those used on common rail systems; with the unit or distributor systems, however, the injection pressure is tied to the instantaneous pressure of a single pumping event with no accumulator, and thus therelationship is more prominent and troublesome.
They were limited in the number and timing of injection events that could be commanded during asingle combustion event. While multiple injection events are possible with these older systems, it is muchmore difficult and costly to achieve.
For the typical distributor/inline system, the start of injection occurred at a pre-determined pressure(often referred to as: pop pressure) and ended at a pre-determined pressure. This characteristic resultedfrom "dummy" injectors in the cylinder head which opened and closed at pressures determined by thespring preload applied to the plunger in the injector. Once the pressure in the injector reached a pre-determined level, the plunger would lift and injection would start.In common rail systems, a high-pressure pump stores a reservoir of fuel at high pressure — up to and above2,000 bars (29,000 psi). The term "common rail" refers to the fact that all of thefuel injectors are supplied by a common fuel rail which is nothing more than a pressure accumulator where the fuel is stored at high pressure.
This accumulator supplies multiple fuel injectors with high-pressure fuel. This simplifies the purpose of thehigh-pressure pump in that it only has to maintain a commanded pressure at a target (either mechanically or electronically controlled). The fuel injectors are typically ECU-controlled. When the fuel injectors areelectrically activated, a hydraulic valve (consisting of a nozzle and plunger) is mechanically or hydraulicallyopened and fuel is sprayed into the cylinders at the desired pressure. Since the fuel pressure energy is storedremotely and the injectors are electrically actuated, the injection pressure at the start and end of injection is verynear the pressure in the accumulator (rail), thus producing a square injection rate. If the accumulator, pump and plumbing are sized properly, the injection pressure and rate will be the same for each of the multiple injectionevents.
An engine has valves that let the air-fuel mixture into the combustion chamber to be burned and then draw outthe exhaust gas after the combustion. A conventional engine has one intake valve to let in the air-fuel mixtureand one exhaust valve to let out the exhaust gases. But the 4-valve engine has two intake and two exhaustvalves. Just like having two doors lets more people enter and leave a room in a given amount of time than onedoor and more exits make for a more efficient flow of people, four valves is better than two. Four valves give anengine steadier low-speed performance and a better acceleration feeling. That’s why most race engines andhigh-performance engines have four valves. For example, Yamaha’s YZR-M1 MotoGP race machine has four valves.
Overhead cam
) valvetrain configurations place the engine camshaft within thecylinder heads,above thecombustion chambers, and drive thevalves or lifters in a more direct manner compared to overhead valves (OHV) and pushrods. Compared to OHV pushrod (or I-Head) systems with the same number of valves the reciprocating components of the OHC system are fewer and have a lower total mass. Though the system thatdrives the cams may become more complex, most engine manufacturers easily accept that added complexity intrade for better engine performance and greater design flexibility. Another performance advantage is gained as aresult of the better optimized port configurations made possible with overhead camshaft designs. With nointrusive pushrods the overhead camshaft cylinder head design can use straighter ports of more advantageouscrossection and length.The OHC system can be driven using the same methods as an OHV system, which include using a rubber/kevlar toothedtiming belt, chain,or in less common cases, gears. In conjunction with multiple (3, 4 or 5) valvesper cylinder, many OHC engines today employvariable valve timingto improve efficiency and power. OHC also inherently allows for greater engine speeds over comparablecam-in-block designs, as a result of having lower valvetrain mass.There are two overhead camshaft layouts: single overhead camshaft ("SOHC"), and double (or dual) overheadcamshaft ("DOHC").
Surface ignition is ignition of the fuel-air charge by any hot surface other than the spark discharge prior to thearrival of the normal flame front. It may occur before the spark ignites the charge (preignition) or after normalignition (postignition)Surface Ignition is ignition of the fuel-air mixture by a hot spot on the combustion chamber walls such as anoverheated valve or spark plug, or glowing combustion-chamber deposit: i.e., by any means other than thenormal spark discharge.•Following surface ignition, a flame develops at each surface-ignition location and starts to propagate across thechamber in an analogous manner to what occurs with normal spark-ignition
In a
stratified charge engine
, the fuel is injected into the cylinder just before ignition. This allows for higher compression ratios without "knock," and leaner air/fuel mixtures than in conventional internalcombustion engines.
Conventionally, afour-stroke(petrol or gasoline)Otto cycleengine is fuelled by drawing a mixture of  air and fuel into thecombustion chamber during the intake stroke. This produces a
: a homogeneous mixture of air and fuel, which is ignited by aspark plugat a predeterminedmoment near the top of thecompression stroke.
In a homogeneous charge system, the
air/fuel ratio
is kept very close tostoichiometric. Astoichiometric mixture contains the exact amount of air necessary for a complete combustion of thefuel. This gives stable combustion, but places an upper limit on the engine's efficiency: any attempt toimprove fuel economy by running a lean mixture with a homogeneous charge results in unstablecombustion; this impacts on power and emissions, notably of nitrogen oxides or NO
If theOtto cycleis abandoned, however, andfuel is injecteddirectly into the combustion-chamber  during the compression stroke, the petrol engine is liberated from a number of its limitations.
First, a higher mechanicalcompression ratio(or, with supercharged engines, maximum combustion pressure) may be used for better thermodynamic efficiency.Since fuel is not present in the combustionchamber until virtually the point at which combustion is required to begin, there is no risk of pre-ignition or engine knock . The engine may also run on a much leaner overall air/fuel ratio, using
stratified charge
Combustion can be problematic if a lean mixture is present at the spark-plug. However, fueling a petrolengine directly allows more fuel to be directed towards the spark-plug than elsewhere in thecombustion-chamber. This results in a stratified charge: one in which the air/fuel ratio is nothomogeneous throughout the combustion-chamber, but varies in a controlled (and potentially quitecomplex) way across the volume of the cylinder.
A relatively rich air/fuel mixture is directed to the spark-plug using multi-hole injectors. This mixtureis sparked, giving a strong, even and predictable flame-front. This in turn results in a high qualitycombustion of the much weaker mixture elsewhere in the cylinder.
Direct fuelling of petrol engines is rapidly becoming the norm, as it offers considerable advantagesover port-fuelling (in which the fuel injectors are placed in the intake ports, giving homogeneouscharge), with the only drawbacks being increase injector cost and complexity, higher fuel pressurerequirements, carbon build up on the back of the intake valve due to the lack of gasoline passing by theintake valve to act as a cleaning agent for the valve on traditional multiport injection designs. Powerfulelectronic management systems mean that there is not even a significant cost penalty.
With the further impetus of tightening emissions legislation, the motor industry in Europe and NorthAmerica has now switched completely to direct fuelling for the new petrol engines it is introducing.
It is worth comparing contemporary directly-fuelled petrol engines with
direct-injection diesels
. Petrolcan burn faster than diesel fuel, allowing higher maximum engine speeds and thus greater maximum power for sporting engines. Diesel fuel, on the other hand, has a higher energy density,and in combination with higher combustion pressures can deliver very strong torque and high thermodynamicefficiency for more 'normal' road vehicles.

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