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Advanced Ic Engines Unit 1

Advanced Ic Engines Unit 1

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Published by Ravi Rajan

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Published by: Ravi Rajan on May 22, 2013
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UNIT ISPARK IGNITION ENGINESAir-fuel Requirement in SI Engines
The spark-ignition automobile engines run on a mixture of gasoline and air. Theamount of mixture the engine can take in depends upon following major factors:(i) Engine displacement.(ii) Maximum revolution per minute (rpm) of engine.(iii) Volumetric efficiency of engine.
There is a direct relationship between an engine’s air flow and it’s fuel requirement.
This relationship is called the air-fuel ratio.
Air-fuel Ratios
The air-fuel ratio is the proportions by weight of air and gasoline mixed by thecarburettor as required for combustion by the engine. This ratio is extremelyimportant for an engine because there are limits to how rich (with more fuel) or howlean (with less fuel) it can be, and still remain fully combustible for efficient firing.The mixtures with which the engine can operate range from 8:1 to 18.5:1 i.e. from 8kg of air/kg of fuel to 18.5 kg of air/kg of fuel. Richer or leaner air-fuel ratio limitcauses the engine to misfire, or simply refuse to run at all.
Stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratio
The ideal mixture or ratio at which all the fuels blend with all of the oxygen in the airand be completely burned is called the stoichiometric ratio, a chemically perfectcombination. In theory, an air fuel ratio of about 14.7:1 i.e. 14.7 kg of air/kg ofgasoline produce this ratio, but the exact ratio at which perfect mixture and completecombustion take place depends on the molecular structure of gasoline, which canvary somewhat.
Engine Air-fuel Ratios
An automobile SI engine, as indicated above, works with the air-fuel mixtureranging from 8:1 to 18.5:1. But the ideal ratio would be one that provides both themaximum power and the best economy, while producing the least emissions. Butsuch a ratio does not exist because the fuel requirements of an engine vary widelydepending upon temperature, load, and speed conditions. The best fuel economy is
obtained with a 15:1 to 16:1 ratio, while maximum power output is achieved with a12.5:1 to 13.5:1 ratio. A rich mixture in the order of 11:1 is required for idle heavyload, and high-speed conditions. A lean mixture is required for normal cruising andlight load conditions. Figure 9.36 represents the characteristic curves showing theeffect of mixture ratio on efficiency and fuel consumption.
Fig. 9.36. Effect of air-fuel ratio on efficiency and fuel consumption.
Practically for complete combustion, through mixing of the fuel in excess air (to alimited extent above that of the ideal condition) is needed. Lean mixtures are used toobtain best economy through minimum fuel consumption whereas rich mixturesused to suppress combustion knock and to obtain maximum power from the engine.However, improper distribution of mixture to each cylinder andimperfect/incomplete vaporization of fuel in air necessitates the use of rich mixtureto obtain maximum power output. A rich mixture is also required to overcome theeffect of dilution of incoming mixture due to entrapped exhaust gases in the cylinderand of air leakage because of the high vacuum in the manifold, under idling or no-load condition. Maximum power is desired at full load while best economy isexpected at part throttle conditions. Thus required air fuel ratios result frommaximum economy to maximum power. The carburettor must be able to vary theair-
fuel ratio quickly to provide the best possible mixture for the engine’s
requirements at a given moment.The best air-fuel ratio for one engine may not be the best ratio for another, evenwhen the two engines are of the same size and design. To accurately determine the best mixture, the engine should be run on a dynamometer to measure speed, loadand power requirements for all types of driving conditions.With a slightly rich mixture, the combustion flame travels faster and conversely with
a slightly weak mixture, the flame travel becomes slower. If a very rich mixture is
used then some “neat” petrol enters cylinder, washes away lubricant from cyli
nderwalls and gets past piston to contaminate engine oil. A very sooty deposit occurs inthe combustion chamber. On the other hand, if an engine runs on an excessivelyweak mixture, then overheating particularly of such parts as valves, pistons andspark plugs occurs. This causes detonation and pre-ignition together or separately.The approximate proportions of air to petrol (by weight) suitable for the differentoperating conditions are indicated below:Starting 9 : 1Idling 12 : 1Acceleration12 : 1Economy 16: 1Full power 12 : 1It makes no difference if an engine is carburetted or fuel injected, the engine stillneeds the same air-fuel mixture ratios.
Spark-ignition engines normally use volatile liquid fuels. Preparation of fuel-airmixture is done outside the engine cylinder and formation of a homogeneousmixture is normally not completed in the inlet manifold. Fuel droplets, which remainin suspension, continue to evaporate and mix with air even during suction andcompression processes. The process of mixture preparation is extremely importantfor spark-ignition engines. The purpose of carburetion is to provide a combustiblemixture of fuel and air in the required quantity and quality for efficient operation ofthe engine under all conditions.
Definition of Carburetion
The process of formation of a combustible fuel-air mixture by mixing the properamount of fuel with air before admission to engine cylinder is called carburetion andthe device which does this job is called a carburetor.
Requirements of an automotive carburetor
The spark ignition engines fitted to automotive vehicles have to operateunder variable speed and load conditions. These engines present the most difficultand stringent requirements to the carburetors. They are as follows:-

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