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Advanced Ic Engines Unit 5

Advanced Ic Engines Unit 5

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Published by Ravi Rajan

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Published by: Ravi Rajan on May 22, 2013
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 1
UNIT VRECENT TRENDS
HCCI Engine
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a form ofinternal combustionin which well-mixedfuelandoxidizer(typically air) are compressed to the point of auto-ignition. As in other forms ofcombustion,thisexothermic reactionreleases chemical energy into a sensible form that can be transformed in an engine intoworkand heat.
Introduction
HCCI has characteristics of the two most popular forms of combustion used in SIengines: homogeneous charge spark ignition(gasolineengines) and CI engines:stratified charge compression ignition(diesel engines). As in homogeneous chargespark ignition, the fuel and oxidizer are mixed together. However, rather than usingan electric discharge to ignite a portion of the mixture, the density and temperatureof the mixture are raised by compression until the entire mixture reactsspontaneously. Stratified charge compression ignition also relies on temperature anddensity increase resulting from compression, but combustion occurs at the boundaryof fuel-air mixing, caused by an injection event, to initiate combustion.The defining characteristic of HCCI is that the ignition occurs at several places at atime which makes the fuel/air mixture burn nearly simultaneously. There is no directinitiator of combustion. This makes the process inherently challenging tocontrol. However, with advances in microprocessors and a physical understanding of theignition process, HCCI can be controlled to achievegasoline engine-like emissionsalong withdiesel engine-like efficiency. In fact, HCCI engines have been shown toachieve extremely low levels of Nitrogen oxide emissions (NO
x
) without an aftertreatmentcatalytic converter.The unburned hydrocarbon and carbon monoxideemissions are still high (due to lower peak temperatures), as in gasoline engines, andmust still be treated to meetautomotive emission regulations. Recent research has shown that the use of two fuels with different reactivities (suchas gasoline and diesel) can help solve some of the difficulties of controlling HCCIignition and burn rates. RCCI or Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition has been demonstrated to provide highly efficient, low emissions operation over wideload and speed ranges *.HCCI engines have a long history, even though HCCI has not been as widelyimplemented as spark ignition or diesel injection. It is essentially anOtto combustion
 
 2
cycle.In fact, HCCI was popular before electronicspark ignitionwas used. One example is thehot-bulb enginewhich used a hot vaporization chamber to help mixfuel with air. The extra heat combined with compression induced the conditions forcombustion to occur. Another example is the"diesel" model aircraft engine. 
OperationMethods
A mixture of fuel and air will ignite when the concentration and temperature of0reactants is sufficiently high. The concentration and/or temperature can beincreased by several different ways:
 
 
Pre-heating of induction gases
 
Forced induction
 
Retained or re-inducted exhaust gasesOnce ignited, combustion occurs very quickly. When auto-ignition occurs too earlyor with too much chemical energy, combustion is too fast and high in-cylinderpressures can destroy an engine. For this reason, HCCI is typically operated atleanoverall fuel mixtures.
Advantages
 
 
HCCI provides up to a 30-percent fuel savings, while meeting currentemissions standards.
 
 3
 
Since HCCI engines are fuel-lean, they can operate at a Diesel-likecompression ratios (>15), thus achieving higher efficiencies than conventionalspark-ignited gasoline engines.
 
Homogeneous mixing of fuel and air leads to cleaner combustion and loweremissions. Actually, because peak temperatures are significantly lower thanin typical spark ignited engines,NO
x
 levels are almost negligible.Additionally, the premixed lean mixture does not producesoot. 
 
HCCI engines can operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, and most alternative fuels.
 
In regards to gasoline engines, the omission of throttle losses improves HCCIefficiency.
Disadvantages
 
High in-cylinder peak pressures may cause damage to the engine.
 
High heat release and pressure rise rates contribute to engine wear.
 
The auto ignition event is difficult to control, unlike the ignition event inspark ignition(SI) anddiesel engineswhich are controlled by spark plugs and in-cylinder fuel injectors, respectively.
 
HCCI engines have a small power range, constrained at low loads by leanflammability limits and high loads by in-cylinder pressure restrictions.
 
Carbon monoxide(CO) andhydrocarbon(HC) pre-catalyst emissions are higher than a typical spark ignition engine, caused by incomplete oxidation(due to the rapid combustion event and low in-cylinder temperatures) andtrapped crevice gases, respectively.
Control
Controlling HCCI is a major hurdle to more widespread commercialization. HCCI ismore difficult to control than other popular modern combustion engines, such asSpark Ignition (SI) and Diesel. In a typicalgasoline engine,a spark is used to ignitethe pre-mixed fuel and air. InDiesel engines,combustion begins when the fuel isinjected into compressed air. In both cases, the timing of combustion is explicitlycontrolled. In an HCCI engine, however, the homogeneous mixture of fuel and air iscompressed and combustion begins whenever the appropriate conditions arereached. This means that there is no well-defined combustion initiator that can bedirectly controlled. Engines can be designed so that the ignition conditions occur at adesirable timing. To achieve dynamic operation in an HCCI engine, thecontrolsystemmust change the conditions that induce combustion. Thus, the engine mustcontrol either the compression ratio, inducted gas temperature, inducted gaspressure, fuel-air ratio, or quantity of retained or re-inducted exhaust. Severalcontrol approaches are discussed below.

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