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Ic Engine Indian Driving Cycles

Ic Engine Indian Driving Cycles

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Published by Ravi Rajan

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Published by: Ravi Rajan on May 22, 2013
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UNIT-3ENGINE EXHAUST EMISSION CONTROLEMISSION (HC,CO,NO,NO
X
) MEASURING EQUIPMENTS
Vehicles generate potentially harmful and toxic emissions throughtheir exhaust pipes, especially when they are not properly maintained. Manystates require that vehicles pass emissions testing before they are deemed road-worthy. Special instrumentation is used to analyze emissions and detect gaseslike nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) andhydrocarbons(HC)
Gas Analyzers
Gas pipe exhaust is measured using special equipment such as the rangeof Dyne System five-gas portable analyzers. These instruments test andmeasure the amount of engine exhaust for specific gas components, includingCO, CO2, NO, HC and oxygen. Equipment is first calibrated using ambient air  prior to each use to ensure accurate measurements. Analyzers feature a sampleline to collect exhaust gases and a two-stage filter system that is capable of detecting and capturing both large and small particles. Systems have touch-screen interfaces that offer control over manual operations. Wall-mountedenclosures are optional equipment to house instruments when not in use.
Dynamometer
A dynamometer is an electronic roller device used inside vehicleinspection bays to measure tailpipe emissions. The test vehicle is driven ontothe dynamometer rollers and then testing begins. This instrument simulates theactual exhaust that the vehicle produces while in driving at low speed (15 mph)and when accelerating, all while still sitting in the bay. It's used in conjunctionwith a five-gas analyzer for instant data readout.Mostly with the help of engine &chassis dyanamometers analysising of emissions are carried out.
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Chassis & engine dyanamometer used in automobile for measuring emission
Engine dynamometer
Anengine dynamometer measures power and torque directly from theengine'scrankshaft(or flywheel), when the engine is removed from the vehicle. These dynos do not account for power losses in the drivetrain, such asthegearbox,transmissionor differential etc
 
Chassis dynamometer
 
 
Emissions development and homologation dynamometer test systemsoften integrate emissions sampling, measurement, engine speed and loadcontrol, data acquisition, and safety monitoring into a complete test cell system.These test systems usually include complex emissions sampling equipment(such as constant volume samplers or raw exhaust gas sample preparationsystems), and exhaust emissions analyzers. These analyzers are much moresensitive and much faster than a typical portable exhaust gas analyzer. Responsetimes of well under one second are common and required by many transient testcycles
Scanning Tools
Many vehicles manufactured post-1980, and all models manufacturedafter 1996 have some form of on-board computerized diagnostic systems(OBDs). These computers can monitor vehicular subsystems like exhaustsensors and oxygen sensors. Scanning tools developed to exploit OBDtechnology can be readily connected to these on-board computers to testemissions. Hand-held electronic scanning instruments can provide real-timeassessments when measuring vehicular emissions.
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Gas Cap Testing
Gas cap testing checks for leaks from around vehicle gas cap seals.Invisible gasoline or diesel fumes are volatile gases and seepage into theatmosphere may go otherwise undetected if inspections are not made.According to the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, about 40 percent of hydrocarbon emissions in the air is due to evaporation of gasoline from leakygas caps. The instrument used for testing consists of a short, wide tube with a pressurized gauge attached. One end of the tube connects to the uncovered gascap on the vehicle, and the gas cap that was removed is screwed onto the other end. Pressure is applied and the reading on the gauge reveals any leaks.
INDIAN DRIVING CYCLES & EMISSION NORMS
Table 1: Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles)StandardReferenceDateRegionIndia 2000Euro 12000NationwideBharat Stage IIEuro 22001NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai2003.04NCR*, 13 Cities2005.04NationwideBharat Stage IIIEuro 32005.04NCR*, 13 Cities2010.04NationwideBharat Stage IVEuro 42010.04NCR*, 13 Cities* National Capital Region (Delhi)† Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat,Kanpur, Lucknow, Sholapur, Jamshedpur and AgraThe above standards apply to all new 4-wheel vehicles sold and registered in therespective regions. In addition, the National Auto Fuel Policy introduces certainemission requirements for interstate buses with routes originating or terminatingin Delhi or the other 10 cities.For 2-and 3-wheelers, Bharat Stage II (Euro 2) will be applicable from April 1,2005 and Stage III (Euro 3) standards would come in force from April 1, 2010.
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