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Biology Syllabus - Core
Saturday, January 24, 20099:06 PM
Topic 1: Statistical Analysis
Saturday, January 24, 20094:33 PM
Topic 1.1: Standard Deviation
Saturday, January 24, 20094:37 PM
Using Statistics to Measure Populations
To calculate populations, we can use Statistics or Stats, to reach our answer.
Statistics - The mathematics of the collection, organization, and interpretation of numerical data, especially the analysis of population characteristics by inference fromsampling.
There are several ways to interpret data, and we will look at a few.1.Mean – is the average value obtained by dividing the total of a set of values by thenumber of values.2.Median – the middle value that separates the higher half of a data set from the lowerhalf of the data.3.Mode – the most frequently occurring data observation.4.Standard Deviation – is used to summarize the spread of variables around the mean.68% of the values of a normal distribution fall within one standard deviation of the mean(+/- 1)
Standard Deviation (SD) can be used to compare populations. The closer the mean andthe SD, the more likely the populations studied are the same or similar. Smaller samplescreate variation due to the random factors. Therefore, only considering the means maygive a distorted picture of the population and small samples are unreliable.
Since the SD is the measure for the spread of variables, we subtract the mean fromeach of the values. Then we square these numbers, add them and divide by the totalnumber of values, -1. The number acquired this way is called the variance.
Using sample standard deviation assuming we have a sample and want to makeassumptions about the entire population. Since you are most likely to have missed theextremes of the population in your sample, you are dividing by n-1 rather than n.
A small SD indicates that the data is clustered closely around the mean value. A largeSD indicates a wider spread around the mean.
What does all this mean?
When comparing two samples from different populations, the closer the means and SDs,the more likely the samples are drawn from similar (or the same) population. The biggerthe difference, the less likely that this is so.
Smaller samples will create a variation simply by random factors in the individualvalues. A sample of population A or 3 plants may give the values of 10 cm, 20 cm, and30 cm in height. A sample of population B may give the values of 20 cm, 20 cm and20cm. The mean of the sample size will be the same for the populations but the SD’s,will differ. However, if one of the plants in population B had measured 40 cm, the resultswould have been very different.
Two conclusions drawn from above are:
Considering only the means may give a distorted picture.
Small samples are unreliable.
Topic 2: Cells
Saturday, January 24, 2009

8:42 AM
Topic 2.1: Cell Theory
Saturday, January 24, 20098:43 AM
Calculating Linear magnification of drawings
1.Using a ruler measure the size of a large clear feature on the image2.Measure the same length on the specimen3.Convert to the same units of measurementMagnification = measured length of the image /measured length of thespecimenLength of the actual specimen = length on the image/ magnification ( e.g. roseleaf = image length 4.2cm/ magnification 0.82 = 5cm real length
Scale Bars
: images often carry a scale bar which is a horizontal line drawn onthe image. The scale bar shows how long the line is in the real specimen.
This example shows a plant cell.
The scale bar indicates the length of 10 microns = 10um
Notice that 10 um is about the vertical length of the diameter of the nucleus.
All other measurements from the image are made relative to this scale bar.
Cell Theory:
1.All organisms are made of one or more cells2.Cells are the smallest units of life3.Cells only arise from pre-existing cells4.Cells form the building blocks of living things5.Cells contain inherited info which controls their actions (DNA)6.Given suitable conditions cells are capable of independent existence. (ex. hearttransplant)
Evidence for Cell Theory:
2.1590 – Jansen invents compound microscopes -2 lenses, more magnification2.Robert Hooke – he named the cellular organisms cells3.Anton Van Leuwenhoek - made single lens microscope with amazing power.a.1675 – discovered uni-cellular organisms4.Matthais Schleiden – 1838 – “all plants were made of cells5.Theador Schwann – 1838 –“all animals made of cells”6.Johannes Purkinje – 1839 – “protoplasm” a jellylike material that fills the cell7.Rudolph Virchow – 1855 – “all new cells arise from pre-existing cells”
Unicellular Organisms Functions of Life
3.Gas exchange2.Taking in water3.Regulation of wastes and water4.Energy production5.Movement and response to stimuli6.Reproduction and growth
Surface Area to Volume Ratios
As the size of a structure increases the surface area to volume ratio decreases
.
Therefore the rate of exchange (diffusion/radiation) decreases
This is true for organelles, cells, tissues, organs and organisms. It is also true forthose structures that organisms build e.g. termite mound

All organisms need to exchange substances such as food, waste, gases and heatwith their surroundings.
These substances must be exchanged between the organism and itssurroundings.
The rate of exchange of substances therefore depends on the organism's surfacearea that is in contact with the surroundings.
As organisms get bigger their volume and surface area both get bigger, but notby the same amount.Result:
Large organisms the rate of exchange with their surroundings occurs moreslowly.
Small organisms have the opposite problem of a rapid rate of exchange with theenvironment.
Sizes of cells
Molecule - 1 µmMembrane thickness - 10 µmViruses - 100 µmBacteria - 1 µmOrganelles - (up to) 10 µmMost cells - (up to) 100 µm
Electron microscope vs. Light microscope
Electron microscope
Can view most organelles and has high enough magnification for internal detailsto be seen.
Can view nucleus
Uses an electron bean
Smaller wave length which gives a greater resolution (5 nm)Light microscope
Can not view most organelle or inner details.
Can view nucleus
Uses a light beam
Resolution 0.2 nm
Stem CellsTherapeutic cloning:
A procedure in which cells, typically skin cells, are takenfrom a patient and inserted into a fertilized egg whose nucleus has beenremoved. The cell that is so created is permitted to divide repeatedly to form ablastocyst. Scientists then extract stem cells from it, and use those cells to growtissue that are a perfect genetic match for the patient.1.It can create embryonic stem cells that are 100% compatible with the patient
There would be presumable no danger of rejection of the transplant b/c organsDNA would match the patients DNA exactly.
For transplants involving kidney (or theoretically any other organ that isduplicated in the body) another individual would not have to experience thepain, inconvenience, and potentially shortened life span in order to donateorgan.
The patient wouldn’t have to wait until an unrelated donor dies to obtain atransplant. A new organ could be grown for them as needed.
Wave lives which otherwise be lost waiting for a transplant that did not come intime.
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