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NCERT Book Contemporary World Politics Class XII

NCERT Book Contemporary World Politics Class XII

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Published by nikhilam.com
NCERT Book Contemporary World Politics Class XII (provided by nikhilam.com in public interest)
NCERT Book Contemporary World Politics Class XII (provided by nikhilam.com in public interest)

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Published by: nikhilam.com on Apr 17, 2009
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06/04/2013

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O
VERVIEW
 This chapter provides a backdropto the entire book. The end of theCold War is usually seen as the beginning of the contemporary era in world politics which is thesubject matter of this book. It is,therefore, appropriate that we begin the story with a discussionof the Cold War. The chapter showshow the dominance of twosuperpowers, the United States of  America and the Soviet Union, was central to the Cold War. It tracks the various arenas of theCold War in different parts of the world. The chapter views the Non- Aligned Movement (NAM) as a challenge to the dominance of thetwo superpowers and describesthe attempts by the non-alignedcountries to establish a New International Economic Order (NIEO) as a means of attainingeconomic development andpolitical independence. It concludes with an assessment of India’s role in NAM and asks how successful the policy of non-alignment has been in protectingIndia’s interests.
Chapter 1
The Cold War Era
The end of the Second World War led to the rise of two major centres of power. The two pictures above symbolise the victory of the US and the USSR in the Second World War.1. American soldiers raising the US flag during the Battle oIwo Jima, Japan, on 23 February 1945 Credit: Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima,Photograph by Joe Rosenthal/The Associated Pres2. Soviet soldiers raising the USSR flag on the Reichstabuilding in Berlin, Germany, in May 194Credit: Reichstag flag, Photograph by Yevgeny Khaldei/TAS
 
Contemporary World Politic
2
C
UBAN
M
ISSILE
C
RISIS
In April 1961, the leaders of theUnion of Soviet Socialist Republics(USSR) were worried that theUnited States of America (USA) would invade communist-ruledCuba and overthrow Fidel Castro,the president of the small islandnation off the coast of the UnitedStates. Cuba was an ally of theSoviet Union and received bothdiplomatic and financial aid fromit. Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of the Soviet Union, decided toconvert Cuba into a Russian base.In 1962, he placed nuclear missilesin Cuba. The installation of these weapons put the US, for the first time, under fire from close rangeand nearly doubled the number of  bases or cities in the Americanmainland which could bethreatened by the USSR. Three weeks after the Soviet Union had placed the nuclear  weapons in Cuba, the Americans became aware of it. The USPresident, John F. Kennedy, andhis advisers were reluctant to doanything that might lead tofull-scale nuclear war betweenthe two countries, but they weredetermined to get Khrushchev toremove the missiles and nuclear  weapons from Cuba. Kennedy ordered American warships tointercept any Soviet shipsheading to Cuba as a way of  warning the USSR of hisseriousness. A clash seemedimminent in what came to beknown as the Cuban MissileCrisis. The prospects of this
We are on a world tour! Will meet you in different countries. Feels goodto be around where events have happened.
Map showing the range of the nuclear missiles under construction in Cuba, used during the secret meetings on the Cuban missile crisis Source: John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museu

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