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Slides Enbal 2up

# Slides Enbal 2up

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05/24/2013

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The Energy Balance for Chemical Reactors
2011 by Nob Hill Publishing, LLC
To specify the rates of reactions in a nonisothermal reactor, we require amodel to determine the temperature of the reactor, i.e. for the reaction
A
+
B
k
1


k
1
C
=
k
1
(T) c
A
c
B
k
1
(T) c
The temperature is determined by the energy balance for the reactor.
We derive the energy balance by considering an arbitrary reactor volume ele-ment, shown in Figure 1
1
General Energy Balance
m
1
1
c
j
1
m
0
0
c
j
0
˙
Q
˙
Figure 1: Reactor volume element.
2

The statement of conservation of energy for this system takes the form,
rate of energyaccumulation
=
rate of energyentering systemby inﬂow
rate of energyleaving systemby outﬂow
+
+
rate of workdone on system
(1)In terms of the deﬁned variables, we can write Equation 1 as,
dE dt
=
m
0
ˆ
0
m
1
ˆ
1
+
˙
Q
+
˙
(2)in which the hat indicates an energy per unit mass.
3
Work Term
It is convenient to split the work term into three parts:
˙
, the work doneby the ﬂow streams while moving material into and out of the reactor,
˙
s
, theshaft work being done by stirrers, compressors, etc., and
˙
b
, the work donewhen moving the system boundary.
˙

total work
=
˙

ﬂow streams
+
˙
s

shaft work
+
˙
b

boundary work
(3)
4

Work done by the ﬂow streams
˙
=
v
0
A
0
0
v
1
A
1
1
=
Q
0
0
Q
1
1
5
0
v
0
v
1
1
A
0
A
1
Figure 2: Flow streams entering and leaving the volume element.We also can express the volumetric ﬂowrate as a mass ﬂowrate divided by
6