International Conference on Fast Sea TransportationFAST 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 2011
Modes of Vibration of High Speed Ship Hull Sections
Michael R. Davis
, Gary Davidson
, Timothy Roberts
and Christopher Cato
University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia 7001
Revolution Design, Moonah, Australia 7009.
Impact testing of a typical high speed ship section hasshown that the mode of vibration most likely to fall in thefrequency range of excitation due to propeller or rotor blade passing is that where the ship frame rocks in a fore and aftdirection about its base connection to the hull plate. Thisvibration has significant amplitude to either side of the keeland it is found that connection between the inboard andoutboard sides is weak. As a consequence vibration canoccur in two modes in which the opposite sides of the hulleither move together or in anti phase. This leads to thestructural strain energy in the two modes being slightlydifferent, the mode with opposite motion to either sideinvolving rather smaller strain energy. As a consequence thetwo modes have slightly different frequency, the mode withopposite motion to either side having rather less strainenergy and thus a lower frequency. Because the frequenciesof the two modes are thus close together the transientresponse exhibits beating in which vibration energy isexchanged between the two sides of the hull at the low beatfrequency. Vibration of the ship frames in this manner appears to have been the cause of minor weld crackingwhere the top of stiffeners pass through cut outs in the webof the ship frames within the fuel tank areas of the hull.
Vibration modes, high speed ship hulls, lightweight hullsections
Propeller and water jet propulsion systems commonly causesignificant vibration problems in the stern region of highspeed lightweight ship structures if a propeller is locatedclose to the hull or if the intake of a water jet has a rampangle which is too steep. In both cases interaction of a non-uniform flow with the rotor can be a powerful source of vibration excitation. In addition, the installation of high power diesel engines in a lightweight aluminium structurecan also lead to significant levels of structural vibrationexcitation. Typical machinery speeds are in the range from500 to 1000 revolutions per minute (8 to 17 Hzapproximately) whilst rotors with up to 5 blades can extendthe frequency of excitation to about 80 Hz. It is therefore of interest to identify the modes of typical ship structureswhich are likely to have frequencies which lie in the rangeof typical blade passing frequencies and the lower order harmonics of those frequencies. Therefore structural modesin the frequency range up to about 160 Hz are of interest.
2.0 SOURCES OF VIBRATION EXCITATION
Propeller and water jet rotor blades give rise to unsteadyloading on the structure for several reasons. Firstly, the blades may be operating in a non uniform flow field whichoriginates due to the hull boundary layer, due to the velocityfield around the aft end of the hull or in the water jet intake. Non uniform flow in a water jet intake is essentially caused by the fact that the flow speed entering the rotor issignificantly less than the forward speed of the vessel. Thecritical parameter is the inlet velocity ratio, this being theratio of the vessel speed to the average speed in the intake.Typical values may range from zero when the vessel isdocking to about 1.7 when cruising. Intake design thusnecessarily compromises between accommodating theseextremes of operation. Ideally design for the cruisecondition would result in the intake duct having a diffusingcross section with the duct area increasing from the inlet tothe rotor. However, whilst such a design is often adopted insmall power boat designs, dockside maneuvering isseriously compromised by the restricted inlet area. Mostoften the intake ducts for large ferries are therefore designedwithout significant area diffusion within the duct so that ahigher rotor speed can be sustained whilst maneuveringwithout cavitation occurring at the aft lip of the intake.Velocity profiles in a model two dimensional intakeobtained by wind tunnel testing (Davidson et al, 2011) for extremes of inlet velocity ratio (IVR) show that for anIVR=0 there is a severe flow separation at the intake lipresulting in the velocity distribution in the intake having amaximum towards the upper side of the duct. For IVR=2.1the flow separates on the upper surface of the intake and thevelocity maximum is on the lower side of the duct. Whilstthese flow non-uniformities are somewhat reduced as theflow remixes ahead of the rotor face, nevertheless the rotor will experience non uniform flow and blade loading.Observations of cavitation on the rotor blades of an INCAT74m vessel using stroboscopic illumination showed thecavitation region and thus the blade loading to be thesmallest at the upper part of the rotor disc and thatindividual blades experience unsteady loads as they progressin rotation around the rotor disc plane. Calculation of theseunsteady loads is difficult as complex interactions are present between the non-uniform inlet flow and the rotating blades. However on the basis of the variability of axial flowvelocity across the rotor disc between upper and lower sections of the rotor an estimate of the variation of bladeincidence angle can be made and from that the variation of
524© 2011 American Society of Naval Engineers