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Glossary of Computer/Internet Terms

Glossary of Computer/Internet Terms

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Published by Sonu Rai
Glossary of Computer/Internet Terms
Glossary of Computer/Internet Terms

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Published by: Sonu Rai on Jan 24, 2008
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access time
Amount of time it takes for a hard drive to find andretrieve a piece of information. Also known as seek time.
ACPI
advanced configuration and power interface. The lateststandard that specifies how PC or laptop power can beefficiently managed. Features include activating devices onlywhen required and reducing clock speed when full processingpower is not needed.
ActiveX
Unlike
ActiveX is not a programming language, buta set of instructions on how an object should be used. ActiveXcontrols can be downloaded from the internet, and run just likeJava applets. However, Java will only interact with your webbrowser, while ActiveX controls can access your Windowsoperating system.
ADSL
asymmetric digital subscriber line. A permanently on,broadband connection to the internet using conventionalphonelines. Data is downloaded to the PC faster than it isuploaded from the PC – hence the term ‘asymmetric’ is usedto describe the connection.
AGP
accelerated graphics port. An expansion slot linked directlyto the motherboard’s system bus, enabling high-performancegraphics. AGP graphics cards can access system memorydirectly, as well as using their own video memory. AGP 2X has apeak transfer rate of 512MBps (megabytes per second), whileAGP 4X runs at 1.1GBps (gigabytes per second).
Ansi lumens
Refers to the brightness of a projector. The higherthis figure, the brighter the image will be. Anything in excess of800 Ansi lumens should be viewable in daylight.
anti-aliasing
Technique used to adjust jagged diagonal lines andcurves in images caused by false frequencies (aliases) to makethem look smoother. This process is commonly used to improvethe appearance of fonts.
API
application program interface. A common interface thatallows programs to make use of services provided by theoperating system or other applications. 
for example,is an API that allows Windows and other programs to talk toTCP/IP for internet access.
applet
Program designed to be executed from within anotherprogram. Applets cannot be activated from an operating system.
application
Software program, such as a word processor,spreadsheet or game, that is designed for a specific purpose.
Ascii
american standard code for information interchange.Ascii is the most common format for text files in computersand on the internet.
A
 
Atapi
attachment packet interface. This is an extension to the
interface specification that additionally supports CD-ROMand tape drives.
Athlon XP
AMD’s processor, the Athlon XP, has a slower clockspeed than its predecessors, but thanks to some clever tweaksof the architecture it is outperforming all the competition.
AVI
audio video interleave. Designed by Microsoft to combineaudio and video in a single track or frame to keep themsynchronised. Files can be compressed using various audioand video coders (coder/decoder).
baseband
The most common type of network. Data istransmitted digitally, each wire carrying one signal at a time.
Basic
beginner’s all-purpose symbolic instruction code. Apopular and simple programming language, which useseasy-to-understand statements. Microsoft’s Visual Basicprovides a graphical interface for writing programs.
Bios
basic input/output system. Software stored in ROM(read-only memory) and used to start a PC when it isswitched on. It checks that all required hardware componentssuch as memory, disk drives and keyboard are present, loadskey parts of the operating system and tells it what hardwareis available.
bit
The smallest unit of data, which has a value of 1 or 0 and isstored by a capacitor in a memory chip using different electricalcurrents. Abbreviated b in data transfer rates – for example,10Kbps (10,000 bits per second).
Bluetooth
Specification for linking devices such as mobilephones, computers and PDAs (personal digital assistants) overa short-range wireless connection. The maximum range overwhich it can operate is currently 10 metres, with data transferrates of up to 721Kbps (kilobits per second) supported.
broadband
Describes transmissions over a wire that cancarry multiple signals at once. Cable TV uses broadbandtransmissions.
buffer underrun
Recording data to CD-R is a real-time processand cannot be interrupted, so most drives come with a bufferof memory to store information to cover times when the PC isnot supplying information. Buffer underrun occurs when thisbuffer is exhausted and the PC has not resumed sendinginformation to the drive.
bus
The data path on the computer’s motherboard thatinterconnects the microprocessor and other components inexpansion slots.
B

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