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On the Propagation of VLF Waves in Solids (1964)

On the Propagation of VLF Waves in Solids (1964)

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The three main directions of the research work conducted
by the VLF team at Innsbruck daring the past four years
include:
1. Investigation of VLF propagation through solid media,
preferably rock, and construction of the necessary
measuring apparatus.
2. Measurement of the electrical conductivity 6and the
dielectric constant 6 of variouu rock, preferably in
natural state. I
3. Theoretical studies on problems of excitation and
propagation of VLF waves in solid media.
In the present report, the research results of 1964 are
described. For a better survey and especially for better
orientation of laymen in the field of VLF propagation, a
brief review shall follow.
The three main directions of the research work conducted
by the VLF team at Innsbruck daring the past four years
include:
1. Investigation of VLF propagation through solid media,
preferably rock, and construction of the necessary
measuring apparatus.
2. Measurement of the electrical conductivity 6and the
dielectric constant 6 of variouu rock, preferably in
natural state. I
3. Theoretical studies on problems of excitation and
propagation of VLF waves in solid media.
In the present report, the research results of 1964 are
described. For a better survey and especially for better
orientation of laymen in the field of VLF propagation, a
brief review shall follow.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: THE NIKOLA TESLA INSTITUTE on May 25, 2013
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i
CR
L
65
-0
3
61(052)-490
December
1964
Y)
FOURTH
TECHNCAL
ANNUAL
SUMARY
REPORT
ON
THE
PROPAGA.TION
OF
VLF
WAVES
IN
SOLIDS
Dr.
W.
BitterlichInnsbruck,
Austria
The
researchreported
inthis
document
has
beensponsored
by
the
United
States
Government.
 
Prefaceandcontents
The
three
maindirections
ofthe
researchwork
conducted
bythe
VLFteam
at
Innsbruckdaring
the
past
four
years
include:
1.
Investigation
of
VLFpropagation
throughsolid
media,preferably
rock,and
construction
of
the
necessarymeasuringapparatus.
2.
Measurement
ofthe
electricalconductivity
6and
the
dielectric
constant
6
of
variouurock,
preferably
in
naturalstate.
I
3.
Theoretical
studies
on
problems
of
excitation
and
propagation
of
VLF
waves
in
solidmedia.
In
the
presentreport,
the
research
results
of
1964
are
described.
For
a
bettersurvey
and
especially
for
betterorientation
of
laymen
in
the
field
of
VLFpropagation,
a
briefreview
shall
follow.
Onthe
first
maindirection
(
hapters
1
and
2):
In
chapter
1
(Apparatus)
a
small,
easilyportable
field
strengthmeter
forfrequencies
rangingfrom
1.9
to
25
kc/sec
is
described.
The
nuvistorizedapparatus
has
a
high
sensiti-vity
and
a
large
signal-to-noiseratio.
A
wire-woundferrite
rod,
approximately
1 m
long
is
used
as
an
antenna.
The
studies
on
optimumreceiving
antennasfor
VLF
signalshave been
terminated.
The
dimensioning
of
magnetic
dipoleantennas
with
ferrite
cores
is
discussed
in
detail.
In
the
mine
of St.
Gertraudi,
a
newtransmittingantennawith
an
antennaarea
of
1600
m
2
and
a
wire
cross
section
of
135
mm
2
was
set
up
in
the
immediateneighborhood
of the
VLF
laboratory
there.
The
distancesreachedwith
this
newantenna
are
much
largerthanthose
reached
with
formerantennas.
For
studying
the
exact
direction
ofthe
electromagnetic
field
of
a
VLF transmitter,
a
direction-finderantennawasconstructed
that can
be
freelyrotated
in
space
and
fixed
 
°:
II
in
anydesirableposition.
The
results
of
measurement
are
dis-
cussed
in
chapter
1.
For
exact
angular measurements
in
other mines
when using
the
portabletransmitter,
a
small
transmittingantenna wasdesigned.Anyangular adjustmentbicomespossible with
this an-
ternna,
up
to
an
accuracy
of
±2
°
.
Itis
mainly used
for
deter-
mining
the
directional patterns
and
field directions
in
the
neighborhood
of
geological interference
zones.
In
chapter
2,
the
propagation measurements
in
homogeneous
and
in
inhomogeneous
rock
of
St.
Gertraudi
and
Bleiberg,
re-
spectively,
re
dealt
with.
A
50
TT
transmitter
was
used
for
measuring
the
propagation
and
the
directional pattern.
The
attenuationvalues
thus
obtained
cannot
be
compared
with
the
attenuation
of
a
remote
VLF
transmitter
(GBR).
It
is
9hownthat
the
great
differences
in
attenuation
are
assumed
o
be
due
to
the
fact that
one
measurement
was
conducted
inthe
near
field;
whereas
the
other
one was made
inthe
far
field.
The
difference
in the
type of
propagation
and
attenuation
ob-
served
in
the
above
two
cases
can also be
dezived theoretically.
The
probler
of
near field
and far
field
is
discussed
in
another section
giving
a
number
of
diagrams
of the
field
strengthtrend
as
dependent
on
the
quantities
rt
9
, w
and
6.
Measurements
in
inhomogeneousmedia
made
it
necessary
to
determine
the
value
of
the
field
s',rength
at
the
point of
reception
as
well
as the
directicn
of
the
field vector.
If
the
rock
contains inhomogeneities,
the
latter may
be
determinedmuch
more
easily
and
accurately by measuring
the
field
direction
than
by
measuring
only
the
field strength
value.
On the
secondmain directio.(chapter
3):
Measurements with direct current
and
with alternatingcurrent wereconducted
the
latter
in
samples
as
well
as
in
solid rock.
By
means
of
measurements following
the
Wenner
method
it
wasempirically
shown
fromwhat electrode distanceonward
the

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