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NCERT Book -Contemporary India Part I - Class IX

NCERT Book -Contemporary India Part I - Class IX

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Published by nikhilam.com

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Published by: nikhilam.com on Apr 18, 2009
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05/20/2014

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 The Tropic of Cancer (23° 30'N) divides thecountry into almost two equal parts. To thesoutheast and southwest of the mainland, liethe Andaman and Nicobar islands and theLakshadweep islands in Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea respectively. Find out the extent of these groups of islands from your atlas.
S
IZE 
 The land mass of India has an area of 3.28million square km. India’s total area accountsfor about 2.4 per cent of the total geographical
I
ndia is one of the ancient civilisations in the world. It has achieved multi-faceted socio-economic progress during the last fivedecades. It has moved forward displayingremarkable progress in the field of agriculture, industry, technology and overalleconomic development. India has alsocontributed significantly to the making of  world history.
OCATION
India is a vast country. Lying entirely in theNorthern hemisphere (Figure 1.1) the mainland extends between latitudes 8°4'N and37°6'N and longitudes 68°7'E and 97°25'E.
I
NDIA 
S
IZE 
 
 AND
OCATION
Figure 1.1 : India in the World 
• The southernmost point of the Indian Union– ‘Indira Point’ got submerged under the sea water in 2004 during the Tsunami.
180°W 150° 120° 90° 60° 30°W 0°180°E150°120°90°60°30°E
INDIANOCEAN
INDIANOCEAN
Antartica
 Antartica
75°N60°30°15°N15°S45°60°75°S
PACIFICOCEAN
PACIFICOCEAN
ATLANTICOCEAN
 ATLANTICOCEAN
PACIFICOCEAN
PACIFICOCEAN
Africa
 Africa
Asia
 Asia
45°
urope
Europe
NorthAmerica
North America
SouthAmerica
South America
Australia
 Australia
30°
1
 
CONTEMPORARY INDIA 2
area of the world. From the Figure 1.2 it isclear that India is the seventh largest country of the world.
India has a land boundary of about 15,200 km and the totallength of the coast line of the mainlandincluding Andaman and Nicobar andLakshadweep is 7,516.6 km.
India is bounded by the young foldmountains in the northwest, north andnorth east. South of about 22° northlatitude, it begins to taper, and extendstowards the Indian Ocean, dividing it intotwo seas, the Arabian Sea on the west andthe Bay of Bengal on its east.Look at Figure 1.3 and note that thelatitudinal and longitudinal extent of themainland is about 30°. Despite this fact theeast-west extent appears to be smaller thanthe north-south extent.From Gujarat to Arunachal Pradeshthere is a time lag of two hours. Hence, timealong the Standard Meridian of India (82°30'E) passing through Mirzapur (inUttar Pradesh) is taken as the standard timefor the whole country. The latitudinal extent influences the duration of the day and night,as one moves from south to north.
Why 82°30'E has been selected as the StandardMeridian of India?Why is the difference between the durationsof day and night hardly felt at Kanniyakumari but not so in Kashmir?
I
NDIA 
 
 AND
 
 THE 
ORLD
 The Indian landmass has a central location between the East and the West Asia. India is a southward extension of the Asian Continent. The trans Indian Ocean routes which connect the countries of Europe in the West and thecountries of East Asia provide a strategic centrallocation to India. Note that the Deccan Peninsula protrudes into the Indian Ocean, thus helpingIndia to establish close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the western coast and with Southeast and East Asia from the easterncoast. No other country has a long coastline onthe Indian Ocean as India has and indeed, it isIndia’s eminent position in the Indian Ocean which justifies the naming of an Ocean after it.
Figure 1.2 : Seven Largest Countries of the World 
Source :
Based on World Population Data Sheet, 2005, Population Reference Bureau, Washington, DC
Since the opening of theSuez Canal in 1869, India’s distance from Europehas been reduced by 7,000 km.

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