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Earthing & Insulation

Earthing & Insulation

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Published by thắng
Protective Earthing
Protective Earthing

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Published by: thắng on May 26, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/28/2013

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39
Input Considerations
• Earthing / Grounding
What is Earth?
Earth can mean different things to different people. In this context it means a place of zero potential,a place where fault currents can be directed of sufficient capacity to enable fuses to rupture. In realityit is usually the substance beneath our feet and we connect to this in a number of different ways.Buildings are connected to the ground and therefore the floors on which we stand are at the samepotential. The electrical connections that come into our homes and offices need to be safe. This is why theearth connection in a domestic location is usually made to a metal pipe (generally the mains watersupply) somewhere close to where it enters the ground.It will also be found that the distribution transformer will have an earth connection, usually in the formof a copper rod anchored in the ground.Lightning conductors that are found on tall buildings will also be rooted in the ground, so that in theevent of a lightning strike the current passes harmlessly to ground and not into the structure of thebuilding, thus saving the building from damage.
1 2 3
N
soil
Earth (mass) electrodesEarth (mass) electrodesHV 
Protective conductorOther floorsGround floorDistributionItems ofequipmentCommon bondingnetwork ( also bondsservices & metalwork)Lightningprotectionsystem(LPS)
Earthing overview
 
40
Input Considerations
Ground Resistivity
 The wetter the ground, the less resistance it will have. This is the reason buildings have their ownearth connection and do not rely on the earth point at the distribution transformer.
Earthing for Safety
For an electrical system to be safe, a sufficient level of protection must be provided. This can beachieved by the use of insulation and earthing. The table below details the level of protection (LOP)provided by different types of insulation and earth.
 Abbr.Earth TypeLevel of Protection (LOP)FE
Functional Earth0
PE
Protective Earth1
 Abbr.Insulation TypeLevel of Protection (LOP)OP
Operational (Functional)0
B
Basic1
S
Supplementary1
D
Double2
R
Reinforced2
Type of groundGround resistivity
 p
m)Range of valuesTypical value
Boggy ground2 - 5030 Adobe clay2 - 20040Silt & sand-clay ground, humus20 - 260100Sand and sandy ground50 - 3,000200 (moist)Peat200+200Gravel (moist)50 - 3,0001,000 (moist)Stony and rocky ground100 - 8,0002,000Concrete: 1 part cement + 3 parts sand50 - 300150Concrete: 1 part cement + 5 parts gravel100 - 8,000400

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