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Romfart Ekspress 2003

Romfart Ekspress 2003

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Published by goldfires
Norsk nyhetsbulletin om internasjonal romfart, romforskning og romvirksomhet. Sendes medlemmer av Norsk Astronautisk Forening (www.romfart.no).
Norsk nyhetsbulletin om internasjonal romfart, romforskning og romvirksomhet. Sendes medlemmer av Norsk Astronautisk Forening (www.romfart.no).

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Published by: goldfires on Apr 19, 2009
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02/13/2014

 
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Acwxd Mx~wcam|~kxd Fcwlakaj" Ycx~gcdx <7 Gbkanlwa" 98=8 Cxbc
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Ldxywlxx
Aw! =#7998 Wlnmdxocala mvxb|~~l~ =:! flgw|mw 7;! ìwjmaj
Hcb|`gkm õnlbmj~" glxl~akajla c`dc`
Mbbl nl x{v mx~wcam|~lal c`dc` nm nlam`lwkdmaxdl wc`flwjla Hcb|`gkm jkdd kcyybõxakaj |anlw ~kbgmdlvlankajla ~kb Ocwnlanla =! flgw|mw 7998!Nl~ vmw w|an~ =< `ka|~~lw l~~lw m~Hcb|`gkm emnnl la~wl~ m~`cxfæwla l~~lw la ~kbnm ~kbx{albm~lanl `ljl~ vlbb{ddl~ =6-nõjaxwc`flwn" cj c`~wla~ bkdl blajl fõw nla xd|bblem bmanl~ vln Dlaaln{-xla~lwl~ k Fbcwknm" m~gmddldca~wcbbla `kx~l~ dca~md~la `ln flwjla!Nl~ vmw kajla nkwld~l ^V-cvlwfõwkajlw mvHcb|`gkm yì nl~~l ~knxy|ad~l~" `la xamw~d|aal ^V-x~mxocalw cvlw elbl vlwnla dwkaj-dmx~l gkbnlw mv la xd|w mv gwlaalanl vwmd-wlx~lw xc` wmx~l cvlw ^lumx-ek``lbla" fmajl~kaa mv la bcdmb ^V-x~mxoca cj la damyyeìanf|bb m`m~õwfc~cjwmflw! ^m~~ fwm la mvx~manyì fblwl ~k~mbbx dkbc`l~lw d|aal xlbv nkxxlnwm`m~kxdl gkbnlal gmwl jk la ma~{nakaj mvnl~ wmjamwcdl~ mx~wcam|~lal `ì em cyyblvnnm Hcb|`gkm cj mb~ nl~x kaaecbn yì xld|anlwgbl fblwwl~ cyy k ~|xlavkx mv gk~lw xc` x~{w~l~gwlaalanl aln cvlw l~ fblwl e|anwl dkbc`l~lwbmaj~ c`wìnl!Nl~~l vmw nla vlwx~l |b{ddla km`lwkdmaxd wc`fmw~ xknla wc`flwjlaHembblajlw ldxybcnlw~l k =;56! Cjxì nmc`dc` mbbl x{v mx~wcam|~lal! Kajla manwl gl-`maalnl wc`flwnlw emw dwlvn fblwl `laalxdl-bkv! Acla fì |b{ddlw `ln |gl`maalnl wmdl~~lwk Xcvol~ cj Dkam emw k`knblw~kn ~m~~ bkvl~ mv bmaj~fblwl `laalxdlw yì gmddla!
Glxl~akajla
Nl c`dc`al X^X-=9:-mx~wcam|~lal lw?%lvla~|lbbl ~knbkjlwl wc`flwnlw k ymwla~lx+Wkhd N! E|xgman" flwndc``manõw %X^X-;6+!Zkbbkm` H! @hHccb" ykbc~!@khemlb Y! Manlwxca" a{~~lbmx~dc``manõw%X^X-5;+Nmvkn @! Gwcza" flwnxylxkmbkx~!Dmbymam Hemzbm" flwnxylxkmbkx~ %X^X-5:+!Bm|wlb G! Hbmwd" flwnxylxkmbkx~!Kbma Wm`ca" a{~~lbmx~xylxkmbkx~!Wm`ca vmw cglwx~ k nl~ kxwmlbxdl fb{vìylal~ cjfõwx~l kxwmlblw k wc``l~! Hemzbm vmw fõwx~lkankxdfõn~l dvkaal k wc``l~! Glxl~akajla ka-db|nlw~l fcw õvwkj ~c dvkaalw %Hemzbm cj Hbmwd+cj la fmwjl~ %Manlwxca+" mdd|wm~ xc` nla xc`c`dc` k Hembblajlw!
Wc`flwnla X^X-=9:
X^X-=9:" nla 75! wc`flwnla ~kb Hcb|`gkm" cjnla ==8! k nl~ m`lwkdmaxdl wc`flwjlywc-jwm``l~" xd|bbl kddl ~kb nla ka~lwamxocamblwc`x~mxocala" `la vmw la xlbvx~lankj flwn"nlnkdlw~ `kdwcjwmvk~mxocaxfcwxdakaj! Nl fblx~lmv nl aæw`lwl ;9 ldxylwk`la~lal gbl fcwl~m~~k la ncgglb Xymhlemg fcwxdakajx`cn|b kbmx~lwc``l~!Xbkdl ldxylwk`la~lw xd|bbl acw`mb~em væw~ jolaac`fõw~ k nla ka~lwamxocamblwc`x~mxocala KXX! @la g{jjkajla mv KXX emwdwlvn `lw ~kn cj wlxx|wxlw laa glwljal~"evkbdl~ emw xdoõvl~ `{l mv nla wlalfcwxdakajla k gmdjw|aala! X^X-=9: xd|bblgknwm ~kb ì cyywl~~ecbnl dc`yl~maxla kaala`kdwcjwmvk~mxocaxfcwxdakaj |anlw KXX‛g{jjlfmxl!Xlbv `ma bm `lwdl ~kb m~ fblwlxlaxcwlw k Hcb|`gkmx vlax~wl vkajl `ìb~l|acw`mbl ~l`ylwm~|wlw nl xkx~l `ka|~~lal mvflwnla" cj nlbvkx x|~~l~ ì vkwdl" dc` emvmwkl~~c~mb~ |vla~l~! Nl~ ~cd fblwl `ka|~~lw fwmdc``|akdmxocala `ln Hcb|`gkm gbl gw|~~ fcwxkx~l jmaj ~kb nl~ vmw dbmw~ fcw gmddldca~wcbbla kEc|x~ca m~ acl xvæw~ mbvcwbkj emnnl xdolnn!
L~~lwfcwxdakajla
Xì bmaj~ yldlw mbbl kankdmxocalw k wl~akaj mv m~la lbblw maala f{xkxd nlfld~ l~ x~ln yì vlax~wlvkajl fõw~l ~kb m~ Hcb|`gkm dc` |~ mv dca~wcbb!Nl~~l xdolnnl |anlw la xvæw~ dwk~kxd nlb mv ~kb-gmdlvlankajxfmxla! @kx~madla emw gb!m wl~~l~xlj `c~ la nlfld~ k nldxlbl~ xc` nlddlweo|bgwõaala |anlw vlax~wl vkajl |~bõx~l nl~elbl! Nm wc`flwjla fõwx~ dc` |~ mv dca~wcbb kla emx~kjel~ mv cvlw 79 999 d`#~ d|aal kajla~kaj glwjl nla fwm ì wkvlx k fkbblw mv nl yì-dolaakajlal m~`cxfæwla" xlbv k la eõ{nl mvcvlw 69 d`" nm |~xm~~l flwjla fcw@ln `lx~lymw~la Hcb|`gkm cyy-gwla~ cj wlx~la xywln~ |~cvlw fblwl nlbx~m~lwdma nl~ gbk |`|bkj ì fkaal nla f{xkxdl nlbla`ln xvmwaõddlbla ~kb ldxmd~ evm xc` jkdd jmb~cj evcwfcw! Xvmwl~ vkb `lw xmaax{abkj gbk f|aal~gbma~ nl x~cwl `lajnlw nm~m xc` gbl xm`bl~kaa k bõyl~ mv flwnla" gìnl fwm ldx~lwalxycwkajxdm`lwmlw cj ~lbl`l~wknm~m fwmxlaxcwlw cj x{x~l`lw k flwjla! Dc``kxocalwgìnl |mvelajkj mv cj ka~lwa~ k AMXM fcwl~mwnla `õ{xc``lbkjl cyyjmvla `ln ìmamb{xlwl nm~m cj nl mbblwlnl cvlw ~|xlakaaxm`blnl vwmdwlx~lal cj v|wnlwl nl` cyy`c~ mbbl ~ladlbkjl emvmwkxhlamwklw!Fõwx~l xlwkõxl `kx~madlw wl~~l~ xlj`c~ xdmnlw k vmw`lxdocbnl~! Fkb`cyy~md fwmfblwl xycwkajxdm`lwmlw vkxlw la gk~" ~wcbkjkxcbmxocaxxd|` bõxal~ fwm nla {~wl ~madla"x`mnwlx `c~ flwjlax vlax~wl |anlwxknl nwõ{~59 xld|anlw l~~lw x~mw~ fwm Hmyl Hmamvlwmb!@la xolfla fcw wc`flwjlywcjwm``l~" WcaNk~~l`cwl" mvvkx~l m~ nl~~l mblal d|aal emfcwìwxmdl~ la fm~mb xdmnl!Wmnmwcgxlwvmxocalw fwm gmddlavkxlw m~ l~ cgold~ folwal~ xlj fwm wc`flwjla`ln < `#x 7> ~k`lw kaa k flwnla! @la `ma vl~kddl c` nl~~l f!ldx vmw la |fmwbkj kxdb|`y xc`bõxal~ lbblw la dwk~kxd nlb mv vmw`lxdocbnl~!Fõwx~ la |dl l~~lw |b{ddla gbl nl~cffla~bkjjocw~ l~ x~kbbgkbnl fwm l~ `kbk~æw~ cgxlwvm-~cwk|` ybmxxlw~ k Alz @lukhc" glwljal~ yì ìcvlwvìdl xm~lbbk~~lw k gmal! Gkbnl~ vkxlwHcb|`gkm l~~lw m~ nla emw jì~~ kaa km~`cxfæwla" `ln ~{nlbkjl |olvael~lw k fcwdma~mv vlax~wl vkajl! Cyy~mdl~ lw ~{nlbkjvkx jocw~ k~lw`kxd kafwmwõn~ cj vkxlw kddl aõnvlankjvkxf{xkxdl ¤emdd´" `la m~ nlblw mv vkajlfcw-dma~la x~wìblw |~ gl~{nlbkj `lw vmw`l laalbblwx" cj cyyvmw`l~ b|f~ lbblw bkjalanl fcwbm~lwvkajlax gmddma~!^lbl`l~wk fwm Hcb|`gkm nl xkx~l ì~~l`ka|~~lal fõw dca~md~la gbl gw|~~ vkxlw õd~l~l`ylwm~|w`ìbkajlw fwm xlaxcwlw k vlax~wl eo|b-gwõaa xìvlb xc` fwm fblwl xlaxcwlw k vlax~wlvkajl cj bmajx vlax~wl xknl mv xdwcjl~! @majlxlaxcwlw glj{a~l ì d|~~l |~ k nlaal ylwkcnla"`|bkjlax fcwnk blnakajlal fwm nl` gbl õnlbmj!Bkdl fõw dca~md~gw|nnl~ gbl nl~ wljkx~wlw~ õd~b|f~`c~x~man yì wc`flwjlax vlax~wl xknl" aclxc` gbl fcwxõd~ dc`ylaxlw~ fcw `lnm|~c`m~kxdl o|x~lwkajlw mv xknlwcw cjmvf{wkajlw mv x~kbbkajxdca~wcbb`c~cwlw! Yìnlaal ~knla cgxlwvlw~l fcbd yì gmddlacgold~lw glj{aal ì xlymwlwl xlj fwmHcb|`gkmx wõ{dxycw yì ek``lbla!^mblfcwgkanlbxla fwm Hcb|`gkm ~kbgmddla gbl gw|~~ `kn~ k la xl~akaj db" =>?<;?87acwxd ~kn nla =! flgw|mw 7998! Wmnkcxkjamblwgbl cvlwfõw~ k {~~lwbkjlwl 87 xld|anlw l~~lwnl~~l" `la `ma emw kddl dbmw~ ì ~{nl acla nm~m|~ mv nkxxl!Nl glx~l dola~l cyy~mdlal mv evmxc` vknlwl xdolnnl gbl cffla~bkjjocw~ fõwx~ ~c|dlw xlalwl! Nl lw ~m~~ `ln kafwmwõnldm`lwmlw yì l~ `kbk~æw~ Mymhel-elbkdcy~lw!Nlwxc` ~knxmavkxakajla yì cyy~mdlal lw wkd~kjvkxlw nl m~ wc`flwjla k bõyl~ mv l~ `ka|~~ l~~lwdca~md~gw|nnl~ emnnl nlb~ xlj cyy k la elbxvlw` mv x~cwl cj x`ì dc`l~bkjalanlcgold~lw! Nl `kanwl nlblal xd{vlx wlbm~kv~ xl~~gmdcvlw cj xbcdalw jwmnvkx! ^wl x~õwwlcgold~lw xdkbblw xlj l~~lw evlw~ dbmw~ |~ cjfcwxvkaalw" x~mnkj x~lwd~ b{xlanl cj `lndwmf~kjl wõdxycw l~~lw xlj" gmd ecwkxca~la"w|an~ ~c `ka|~~lw l~~lw dca~md~gw|nnl~!
 
Nla ka~lwamxocambl wc`x~mxocala
@ln wc`flwjlfbì~la yì gmddla yì |glx~l`~ ~knxlw nla w|xxkxdl nlb~mdlbxla |~ ~kb ì væwl`ljl~ j|ax~kj fcw nl~ ka~lwamxocambl wc`-x~mxocaywcxold~l~ KXX!Nl `lx~ md|~~l cyyjmvlal k KXX-ywcxold~l~ gbkw ì xõwjl fcw m~ x~mxocala kddlwm`blw aln %vkbbl fõwx~ xdolnn l~~lw l~ ymw ìw c`kajla a{l fmw~õ{ gbl xlan~ cyy+" gwkajl alnnla aìvæwlanl glxl~akajla" a{l cyy" cjxlanl cyy fcwx{akajlw ~kb nkxxl! Mb~ nl~~l dmajoõwlx `ln fcw~xm~~ gw|d mv w|xxkxdl gl-`maalnl Xco|- cj |gl`maalnl Ywcjwlxx-wc`xdky!@la w|xxlwalx fcwybkd~lbxlw k KXX-ywcjwm``l~ emw l~~lw evlw~ x|adl~ ~kb ~cXco|lw cj ~wl Ywcjwlxxlw k ìwl~" damy~ acd~kbx~wlddlbkj ~kb ì nwkvl KXX yì xymwlgb|xx!E{yykjlwl ywcn|dxocaxwm~l lw `|bkj" `law|xxkxdl `{ankjel~lw emw kddl ylajlw ~kb nl~~l"cj la bcv fcwg{w AMXM ì gl~mbl w|xxlwal fcwnla xbmjx `ln cffla~bkjl `knblw fõw nl~ dmajmwma~lwlx m~ w|xxlwal kddl emw eo|byl~ Kwma`ln wmdl~~- lbblw dolwal~ldacbcjk nl xkx~l =7`ìalnlw! W|xxlwal emw majkvlbkj mbnwk elb~xb|~~l~ `ln nl~~l!Nm Hcb|`gkm fcw|b{ddl~ vmw KXX kaalk la eld~kxd g{jjlfmxl xc` aì vkb x~cyyl cyy!Mbbl nl vlx~bkjl KXX-lbl`la~lal glwljal~ yì ìxd{~lx cyy `ln wc`flwjla emw wkd~kjacd vld~cj vcb|` xc` w|xxkxdl Ywc~ca-wmdl~~lw dbmwlwì xlanl cyy ~kb KXX‛ gmal! Bkdlvlb lw nl~~l elb~|md~|lb~" xlbv c` nlaal Kwma-bcvla xd|bbl gbkbmj~ yì e{bbm! Lbl`la~lalx x~w|d~|w cj flx~l-y|ad~lw lw ~kbymxxl~ wc`flwjlalx bmajxjìlanlbmx~lwc`! K `c~xl~akaj ~kb nl w|xxkxdl`cn|blal" xc` dma f|ajlwl xc` xlbvx~lankjlwc`xdky" `majblw nl ~kaj xc` `maõvwlwkajx-`c~cwlw" ljla x~wõ`x{akaj" cj dc``|akdm-xocax cj `õ~l|~x~{w cj lw nlwfcw mvelajkjl mvì gbk gwmd~ elb~ fwm` ~kb KXX cj xm~~ yì ybmxx`ln wc`flwjlax lbblw KXX‛ `maky|bm~cwmw`!K xdwkvlanl x~|an glfkaalw nl ~wlLdxylnkxoca 6-glxl~akajx`lnbl``lal %
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 5#7997+ xlj c` gcwn k KXX! K fõbjl ybmalal fõwHcb|`gkm jkdd ~my~ xd|bbl nkxxl g{~~lx |~ `lnLdxylnkxoca :-glxl~akajla |anlw X^X-==>`ln M~bma~kx k `mwx 7998!Ldxylnkxoca 6-glxl~akajla emw xmj~xlj vkbbkjl ~kb ì fcwgbk k KXX k cyy~kb l~ ìw c` aõn-vlankj" k yìvla~l mv m~ wc`flwjlal xdmb gbkfb{dbmwl! K õ{lgbkddl~ vkwdlw nl~ `lw xmaax{abkjm~ acla lbblw mbbl nwmw eol` ~kb Ocwnla k `mk7998" k ¤bkvgì~la´ Xco| ^@M-= %
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:#7997+!Nm vkb nlaal em væw~ ~kbdcgbl~ KXX l~ nwõ{~embvìw cj |maxl~~ væwl `cnla~ fcw |~xdkf~kaj!Cyywkaalbkj xd|bbl nla xìdmb~l LY-< ¤~muk´-glxl~akajla em gwmd~ Xco| ^@M-= ~kbgmdl ~kbOcwnla" embvmaala |dl l~~lw m~ nl emnnlmadc``l~ k cj mvblvlw~ nla flwxdl bkvgì~laXco| ^@M-7!@ma õaxdlw kddl ì fcwbm~l KXX |gl-`maal~" `la emw fcwlbõykj kddl mvjocw~ evl`xc` xdmb mvbõxl Ldxylnkxoca 6! Cyyxd{~kajlamv Xco| ^@M-7 lw |~xm~~ k ~c |dlw" ~kb =9 `mk"`la nl~~l lw ma~mdlbkj kddl acd ~kb ì ~wlalLdxylnkxoca :-glxl~akajla ~kb ì wlkxl
~kb 
KXX kla Xco|! %Nl dma nwm eol` `ln la!+ \maxl~~vkbbl nl f|aal~ m~ `{l mv fcwxdakajx|~x~{wl~ nllw ~wla~ ~kb ì gla{~~l" cj KXX-lbl`la~lal nlemw õvn xlj yì ì `ca~lwl" fcw~xm~~ vkbbl gl-f|aal~ xlj yì gmddla xm``la `ln wc`-flwjlal xc` xdmb gwkajl nl` cyy!Ma~mdlbkj nwmw LY-<-dc``manõwJlaamnko Ymnmbdm cyy ~kb KXX k Xco| ^@M-7"dmaxdol xm``la `ln la m`lwkdmaxd ¤e|x-ecbnlw´ xc` gbkw kjola k KXX ~kb Xco| ^@M-8madc``lw k cd~cglw 7998! Xco| emw ybmxx ~kbcyy~kb ~wl wc`fmwlwl" cj LXM eìylw Ymnmbdmxcyywkaalbkjl LY-<-`mddlw" LXM-wc`fmwlwlaYlnwc N|}|l" cjxì gbkw `ln cyy" cj jolwalgbkw kjola k KXX xm``la `ln ¤e|xecbnlwla´cj Ymnmbdm lbblw la fwm Ldxylnkxoca 6! Nl~~lmvelajlw k`knblw~kn mv c` `ma fcw~xm~~ dma~kbbm~l xlj la bmaj~knxglxl~akaj yì ~wl k KXX aìxc` mbbl fcwx{akajlw `ì gwkajlx cyy `lnYwcjwlxx-fmw~õ{!Xlbv k KXX‛ gmaleõ{nl yì w|an~ >99d` gwl`xlw m~`cxfæwla acd ~kb m~ gmalax{adlw `ln `lbbc` 9"8 cj = d` k nõjal~! ^kb-dcgblnl wc`flwjlw cj Ywcjwlxx-fmw~õ{ emw nlb~yì cyyjmvla `ln ì y|ffl yì KXX fcw ì cyy-wl~~ecbnl eõ{nla! Aì xc` Ywcjwlxx gbkw mblalc` cjxì nl~~l `ì `ma `|bkjlax ~æwl yì KXX‛ljal nwkvx~cffwlxlwvlw" xc` k ecvlnxmdglfkaalw xlj k ~madlw w|an~ _mwom cj mblalg|wnl wlddl ~kb l~ ìwx fcwgw|d! Nl~ lw wmdl~~-`c~cwlw yì _vlnm %nla manwl w|xxkxdl KXX-`cn|bla+ xc` nm vkb nm gbk mvf{w~! ^madlal dmal~~lwf{bblx" `la ek~~kb d|a fwm Ywcjwlxx-fmw~õ{!LXMx |gl`maalnl M^V-fmw~õ{" xc` vkbf|ajlwl xc` eõ{dmymxk~l~x Ywcjwlxx" vkb~knbkjx~ gbk cylwm~kvl fwm xb|~~la mv 799>!
Gl`maal~ wc`fmw~
Nm~clw fcw flwnlw ~kbda{~~l~ gl`maal~ wc`vkwdxc`el~! Wl~|wnm~c fcwXelaec| 8x gmal`cn|b lw dcwwkjlw~ k fcwecbn ~kb fcwwkjl ~mglbb" xc`gbl y|gbkxlw~ k
WC@FMW^
Ldxywlxx 
aw! :#7997! La cvlwxkd~ cvlw ybmabmj~lflwnlw ~kb nla ka~lwamxocambl wc`x~mxocala KXX fwl` ~kb 7995 gbl ywl-xla~lw~ k Wc`fmw~ aw! >#7997! Ywcjwlxx @->: gbl xd|~~ cyy `ln fcw-x{akajlw ~kb KXX acdxì |yìvkwdl~ mv |b{ddla `ln Hcb|`gkm nmjla kfcwvlkla! Mbbl flwnlw `ln nl jolavæwlanl ~wl wc`flwjlal bmj~ yì kx"cj ~knxxdol`ml~ fcw nla vknlwl |~g{jjkajla mv KXX elb~ |vkxx!
cyyxd{~kajxnm~c lv~! KXX-flwnaw! glxl~akajgæwlwmdl~~ wc`fmw~õ{ a{~~lbmx~#`cn|b ma`lwdakajlw fcwl~m~~ wl~|wnm~c
Xelazec| 8x gmal`cn|b
- =7! acv 79977>! acv! 7998 X^X-==8 Lanlmvc|w Y= Lu<#-6 g{~~l : :! nlx! 79977;! nlx! 7997 H_-7F - Xelazec| > ~lx~ mv dkalxkxd wc`fmw~õ{ - <! oma 7998=6! oma! 7998 X^X-=9: - Hcb|`gkm Xymhlemg$Fwllx~mw flwjl õnlbmj~" glxl~akaj c`dc` : =! flg! 7998Ywcjwlxx @=-; - =! flg! 79987! flg! 7998 Xco|z-\ =9Y Ywcjwlxx @->: -Ybmabmj~l?76! myw! 7998 Xco|z-FJ 6X Xco|z ^@M-7 glxl~akaj cj cyyxd{~kajxnm~c |anlw v|wnlwkaj 7-85! o|ak 7998 Xco|z ==Y Ywcjwlxx @=-=9 -89! o|bk 7998 Xco|z =7Y Ywcjwlxx @=-== -=5! cd~! 7998 Xco|z-FJ :X Xco|z ^@M-8 glxl~akaj cj cyyxd{~kajxnm~c |anlw v|wnlwkaj 7-8
Õvwkjl gljkvlael~lw
Mv ybmxxelax{a `ì aæw`lwl c`~mbl mv gb!mfõbjlanl md~|lbbl ~l`mlw c` vlwnlaxwc``l~|~xl~~lx ~kb dc``lanl WC@FMW^
Ldxywlxx 
lbblwmd~|lb~xldxoca k WC@FMW^?
WCXL^^M \^XM^^
LXMX m`gkxkõxl dc`l~xcanl gbl k xkx~l bk~la|~xm~~ yì |glx~l`~ ~kn xc` fõbjl mv nla fcwwkjl`kxb{ddlnl Mwkmal <-cyyxd{~kajla!
XKX^L MWKMAL > XD\^^ CYY
L~ `mwdma~ dmyk~~lb k l|wcylkxd wc`fmw~xekx~cwklgbl mvxb|~~l~ `ln cyyxd{~kajla mv ~knlalx==6! cj xkx~l Mwkmal >-wmdl~~ nla =>! flgw|mw7998!
MNLCX-7
Omymax x~cwl" a{lx~l ocwnwlxx|wxxm~lbbk~~ gblxd|~~ cyy k nlxl`glw 7997 `ln acd lavlbb{ddl~ E-7M
VLA\X LUYWLXX
LXM emw vln~m~~ g{jjkaj mv la wc`xcanl xc`xdmb xlanlx kaa k gmal w|an~ Vla|x!
\AKVLWXL^X MBNLW
Fcwxdlwl gmd xm~lbbk~~la @MY emw glx~l`~~knla xknla Gkj Gmaj ~kb =8": `kbbkmwnlw ìw -`ln la flkb`mwjka yì gmwl la ywcxla~!
MW^L@KX YÌ YBMXX
=5 `ìalnlw l~~lw ì em gbk~~ xd|~~ cyy `ln nlafcwljìlanl `kxb{ddlnl Mwkmal <-wmdl~~la emwL|wcymx mvmaxlw~l dc``|akdmxocaxxm~lbbk~~lanlbkj `maõvwlw~ xlj cyy ~kb nla jlcx~mxoca-æwl gmala!
XELA_EC\ >
W|an~ ìwxxdkf~l~ jolaac`fõw~l nl~ folwnldkalxkxdl Xelaec|-fmw~õ{l~ la vlbb{ddl~"|gl`maal~ wc`flwn" `|bkjlax jlalwmbywõvlafõw nl~ xdmb cyy k wc``l~ `ln fcbd c` gcwn!
WC@FMW^
 Ldxywlxx
? «7998
Õ{vkan J|bngwmanxla
 
 
zzz!wc`fmw~!ac
Acwxd Mx~wcam|~kxd Fcwlakaj" Ycx~gcdx <7 Gbkanlwa" 98=8 Cxbc
WC@FMW^
 
Ldxywlxx
Aw! 7#7998 Wlnmdxocala mvxb|~~l~ 6! mywkb 7;! ìwjmaj
HCB\@GKMX XKX^L FLWN
Nl~ lw laaì fcw ~knbkj ì ~wlddl acla lanlbkjdcadb|xoca yì ldxmd~ evm xc` fcwìwxmdl~emvmwkl~ mv wc`flwjla Hcb|`gkm k xb|~~fmxla mvX^X=9:flwnla nla =! flgw|mw 7998" nlw mbblx{v mx~wcam|~lal c`dc` %
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=#7998+! @la`kx~madla xlw |~ ~kb ì xm`bl xlj `c~ m~ la nlbmv vmw`lxdocbnl~ k fcwdma~ mv vlax~wl vkajl"aæw eo|bgwõaala" vmw xdmnl~ lbblw gcw~lmbblwlnl k nl~ Hcb|`gkm kaablnl~ nla |b{ddxmbkjl ~kbgmdlvlankajfmxla! Nl~~l ~kbbc~ vmw`ljmxxlw xc` l~~lw evlw~ c`wkajl~ wc`flwjla k ì~wlajl kaa gmd vmw`lxdocbnl~ cj l~l xlj vlkkaa k eo|bgwõaala cj wlx~la mv vkajlx~w|d~|wla!Nl vcdxlanl xdmnlal yì vlax~wlvkajla jml~~lw evlw~ xì x~cw mlwcn{am`kxd `c~x~man m~vlwdla mx~wcam|~lal lbblw acla mv x{x~l`lalc` gcwn d|aal ekanwl Hcb|`gkm k ì jì kaa k lawc~mxoca `c~ vlax~wl! Nm nl~~l fõwx~ vmw k jmajvmw nl~ gmwl l~ ~knxxyõwx`ìb fõw elblwc`flwjla gbl wlvl~ k x~{ddlw mv nl mlwcn{am`kxdl yìdolaakajlal!Nl~ lw kaablnlanl mamb{xlw mv nm~mfwm CLUgìancyy~mdlwla %Cwgk~lw LUylwk`la~wlhcwnlw+ xc` vkxlw m~ vmw`l jmxxlw ~wlaj~lkaa k vkajla w|an~ 8° `ka|~~ ~knbkjlwl |anlw ~kbgmdlvlankajxfmxla laa ma~m~~ k glj{aalbxlamv |b{ddlxl~~lwfcwxdakajla" xc` fcwl~mx mv la|mvelajkj jwmaxdakajxdc``kxoca! CLUcyy~mdlwla vmw la nlb mv Hcb|`gkmx x~manmwn|~w|x~akaj cj gbl f|aal~ =;! `mwx l~~lw `ìbwl~~l~bl~kaj" nlw `ma glwljal~ xlj fwm` ~kb l~xmaax{abkj alnxbmjxc`wìnl vln ì ybc~~l kaaf|aax~lnlal fcw vwmdnlblw fwm c`wìnlw aæwCLU‛ ybmxxlwkaj k Hcb|`gkm! Nl <999 bl~l`maaxdmylal xc` x{x~l`m~kxd ~wìblw ^lumxcj Bc|kxkmam emnnl vln W
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~w{ddl~kn f|aal~w|an~ <9 999 vwmdnlblw fwm Hcb|`gkm" `ln laxm`bl~ `mxxl yì w|an~ folwnlymw~la mvHcb|`gkmx `mxxl vln kaablnakajla ~kb ~kbgmdlvlankajxfmxla!Aæw`lx~ `kwmd|bõx~ acd gbl gìanl~k CLUcyy~mdlwla ~kbx{albm~lanl f|aal~ ~kbaæw`l~ |xdmnl~! Gìanl~" xc` gl~ljalx xc`la j|bbjw|vl fcw l~~lwfcwxdakajxmwglknl~" kaalecbnlw ymwm`l~wl fwm w|an~ <99 xlaxcwlw w|an~k wc`flwjla" bmaj~ fblwl laa evm xc` gbl ~lbl`l~wkcvlwfõw~! Acla mv nl glvmw~l nm~mlalvmwlw cjxì fwl` ~kb db! =<?99?=;"> acwxd ~kn"nvx! =< vkd~kjl xld|anlw l~~lw la xkx~l `c~~m~~~cxld|anlwx ~lbl`l~wk¤xyw|~´ fwm wc`flwjla"cj ~c xld|anlw fõw vknlccyy~md fwm gmddlavkxlw m~ xdwcjl~ glj{a~l ì jì k cyybõxakaj!CLU lw kddl acla ¤xcw~ gcdx´" xc`ywmd~kxd ~mb~ mbbl x~õwwl fb{" `la kajla mv wc`flwjlal kaalecbnlw! K `c~xl~akaj ~kb CLU lw¤xcw~l gcdxlw´" lbblw flwnxxdwkvlwl" xæwbkjdcax~w|lw~ fcw ì ~ìbl l~ emvmwk" cj |~x~{w~ `lnmd~kvl x{x~l`lw xc` joõw m~ bl~l`maaxdmylwdma ylkbl xlj fwl` ~kb nl`! Hcb|`gkm|b{ddlaemw md~|mbkxlw~ xyõwx`ìbl~ c` ì kax~mbblwlemvmwkwlxkx~la~l flwnxxdwkvlwl k nl ~wl jolavæwlanl wc`flwjlal" xc` kddl lajmaj emwCLUcyy~mdlwl!^lx~lw emw kddl d|aal~ |~lb|ddl m~cgold~l~ xc` la gmddlwmnmw wljkx~wlw~l bõxalfwm Hcb|`gkm yì nla 7! flwnnmjla dc` fwmxm``l x~ln yì vmw`lxdocbnl~ xc` gbl ~w|ffl~mv la xd|`gk~ xc` bõxal~ fwm nla {~wl ~madla57 xld|anlw l~~lw x~mw~! AMXM emw fì~~ dwk~kddfcw ì em gbk~~ cyy`lwdxc` yì xd|`gk~lykxcnla~knbkj |anlw flwnla" `la maxl nla xc` |fmwbkjcj nlwfcw kddl gl `kbk~æwl c` ì |anlwxõdlxmdla aæw`lwl! \anlw flwnla xdmbm`lwkdmaxdl xykcaxm~lbbk~~lw em em~~ fblwl`|bkjel~lw ~kb ì ~m jcnl gkbnlw mv wc`flwjla"`la kajla gbl |~a{~~l~! Fblwl gkbnlw gbl nlwk`c~|cyyfcwnwl~ ~m~~ `ln `kbk~æwl ~lblxdcylw yìgmddla" `la yì mbbl nkxxl nlddlw Hcb|`gkmxìyal bmx~lwc`xnõwlw nl~ `kx~lad~l c`wìnl~"c`~wla~ nlw evcw vkajlfcwdma~la emw la¤daldd´! K l~~lwyìdbcdxdmylax b{x emw AK@M%xc` gb!m cylwlwlw \XMx fc~cwldcjacxlwkajxxm~lbbk~~lw+ jì~~ `ln yì ì w|~kal`lxxkjfc~cjwmflwl wc`flwjla yì mbbl dc``lanlflwnlw!Evm AMXM nlwk`c~ xd|bbl jocw~nlwxc` `ma |anlw X^X=9: emnnl xdoõa~ m~Hcb|`gkm vmw nõnxnõ`~" lw la maala xmd" cjemw væw~ jolax~man fcw la nlb ka~lwlxxma~lxyld|bmxocalw xc` nl~ nlxxvlwwl kddl lw ybmxx~kb ì dc``l kaa yì elw! @la vk dma cyyb{xl m~Hcb|`gkm jkdd k la gmal evcwfwm nla kddld|aal em `maõvwlw~ xlj fwm` ~kb nla ka~lwamxocambl wc`x~mxocala" cj kddl d|aal aìx mvw|xxkxdl Xco|wc`xdky %nla emnnl kddl lajmaj acla ~kbdcgbkajxb|dl+! Cj kajla wc`flwjlw yì gmddla vmw k aæwel~la dbmwl acd ~kb ìd|aal xd{~lx cyy fõw wlxx|wxlal c` gcwn kHcb|`gkm fcw blajx~ emnnl væw~ cyygw|d~!Mv ybmxxelax{a xlw WC@FMW^
Ldxywlxx 
wlnmdxocala xlj cjxì aõn~ ~kb ìelavkxl ~kb vlnbmj~l Wc`fmw~ aw =#7998 fcw laaæw`lwl c`~mbl mv X^X=9: cj nlax glxl~akaj! Fcw `ljl~ jw|ankj cj cyynm~lw~kafcw`mxoca c` l~~lwfcwxdakajla mv |b{ddla%cj õvwkjl wc`fmw~xa{el~lw+ maglfmblx AcwxdMx~wcam|~kxd Fcwlakajx lWc`fmw~" xc` xlanlxjwm~kx yì lycx~ ~kb mbbl `lnbl``lw xc` glwc` nl~! Elavlanlbxl ~kb amfIwc`fmw~!ac" lbblwvkm ¤Xkx~l a{~~´bladla yì AMFx eol``lxknlzzz!wc`fmw~!ac!
NLA KA^LWAMXOCAMBLWC@X^MXOCALA
L~~lw m~ Hcb|`gkm fcw|b{ddl~ lw mbbl flwnlw `lnnl jolavæwlanl ~wl wc`flwjlal bmj~ yì kx" cj~knxxdol`ml~ fcw nla vknlwl |~g{jjkajla mvnla ka~lwamxocambl wc`x~mxocala KXX |vkxx%
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=#7998+! @la `ma ~mw xkd~l yì ì cyywl~~ecbnl la ylw`mala~ gl`maakaj k KXX!Nlaal vkb k`knblw~kn gbk wln|xlw~ fwm ~wl ~kb ~c aìwnla aìvæwlanl Ldxylnkxoca 6glxl~akajla%Lu6+ wl~|walwlw k glj{aalbxla mv `mk 7998!Xì blajl wc`flwjlal x~ìw yì gmddlavkb |~xdkf~kajlal mv KXXglxl~akajlal fcwl~mx`ln w|xxkxdl Xco|wc`xdky! Cyyxd{~kajxxdol`ml~ fcw nkxxl lw kddl lanwl~ xc` fõbjl mvHcb|`gkm|b{ddla" `la nl~ lw glxl~akajlal!Nl~ alx~l Xco|wc`xdkyl~" ^@M7" ybmabljjlxxd|~~ cyy nla 76! mywkb 7998 %|~xl~~lx kddl ~kb=9! `mk" xc` nl~ gbl cyyb{x~ k fcwwkjl W
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+!Glxl~akajla xdmb væwl nl lwfmwal wc`fmwlwlO|wko @mbla~xoladc fwm W|xxbman cj Lnzmwn B|fwm \XM! Nla wln|xlw~l Lu:glxl~akajlalwx~m~~lw gìnl Xco| ^@M7x cyywkaalbkjl LY<‐~muk‐glxl~akaj cj KXX‛ cyywkaalbkjl Lu:glxl~akaj" gljjl yì ~wl ylwxcalw!Cyyxd{~kajla mv nl~ |gl`maalnl"w|xxkxdl fcwx{akajxfmw~õ{l~ Ywcjwlxx @>: fma~x~ln l~~lw ybmala nla 7! flgw|mw 7998" acdxì|yìvkwdl~ mv Hcb|`gkm|b{ddla nmjla fõw! Xlbv`ln gmwl ~c ylwxcalw k KXX gbkw nl~ aõnvlankjì õdl cyyxd{~kajx~md~la mv Ywcjwlxxfmw~õ{fcw ì dc`ylaxlwl fcw fwmvæwl~ mv wc`flwjlal!Elf~kjl nkxd|xocalw `lbbc` KXXymw~alwal xlwa{bkj |~ ~kb ì em lan~ cyy `ln m~ w|xxlwal xlbv`ì gldcx~l nkxxl ldx~wmYwcjwlxxlal!
MNLCX-#@KNCWK-7
Nla omymaxdl wc`fmw~xcwjmakxmxocala AMXNMxdoõ~ nla =>! nlxl`glw 7997 cyy nla x~cwl ocwncgxlwvmxocaxxm~lbbk~~la MNLCX7%MNvmahln Lmw~e Cgxlwvkaj Xm~lbbk~l+" l~~lwcyyxd{~kajla c`nõy~ ~kb @kncwk7! Cyyxd{~kajla fcwljkdd fwm ^maljmxok`m k Omyma cjvmw nla folwnl `ln gæwlwmdl~~la E7M `lafõwx~l ~kb ycbgmal! Xm~lbbk~~la lwx~m~~lw MNLCXlbblw @kncwk=" xc` xvkd~l~ k o|ak =;;:" gmwl =9`ìalnlw l~~lw cyyxd{~kajla %
XcW >#;:+!Fwm xka nwõ{l 599 d` eõ{l xcbx{adwcal gmal xdmb @kncwk7 nl aæw`lx~lìwlal cgxlwvlwl Ocwnlax `kboõ" dbk`mlanwkajlwcj manwl fcwecbn! ^kb nl~~l lw nla |~x~{w~ `lnfl` kax~w|`la~lw" g{jjl~ k Omyma" \XM cjFwmadwkdl?Xdmaakajwmnkc`l~lwl~ cgxlwvlwlwvmaanm`y" emv~l`ylwm~|wlw cj emvkx! Nl~`|b~kxyld~wmbl vknvkadlbdm`lwml~ cgxlwvlwlwgb!m ocwnm~`cxfæwlax dmwgcakaaecbn cj dbcwcf{bb cj cwjmakxd x|gx~max" ywk`æw~ k `mwkalc`wìnlw! Emvvkankax~w|`la~l~ gla{~~lw l~wmnmwx{x~l` ~kb ì cgxlwvlwl gõbjl`õax~wl" xbkdm~ vkanwl~akaj cj vkanx~{wdl cvlw vlwnlaxemvlal dma glx~l``lx! M~`cxfæwlxyld~wc`l~lwl~ cgxlwvlwlw `kdwcxdcykxdlymw~kdblw k m~`cxfæwla %mlwcxcblw+ cj x~m~|xla~kb ccabmjl~ cvlw ycbc`wìnlal! Nl~ fl`~lkax~w|`la~ cgxlwvlwlw nkfflwmaxla k xcbx~wìbkajwlfbld~lw~ fwm Ocwnlax m~`cxfæwl cj nlawlfbld~lw~ fwm Ocwnlax cvlwfbm~l!Aæw`lwl c`~mbl mv nlaal E7Mcyyxd{~kajla fkaalx k vlnbmj~l Wc`fmw~ aw!=#7998
XELA_EC\ >
Nla folwnl flwnla `ln l~ dkalxkxd Xelaec|wc`fmw~õ{ gbl fcwl~m~~ fwm nla 7;! nlxl`glw7997 ~kb <! oma|mw 7998! Nla ~kbx{albm~lanlvlbb{ddlnl flwnla jkdd =95 jmajlw w|an~Ocwnla cj yìx~ìx ì væwl nla xkx~l fõw Dkamxd{~lw cyy wc`fmw~õ{l~ `ln fcbd c` gcwn" aclxc` cyyb{xlx ì d|aal fkaal x~ln xla~ k 7998!Dkam vkb k xì fmbb gbk nla ~wlnol amxocala xc`xlbv fcwl~mw la gl`maal~ wc`flwn" l~~lwXcvol~#W|xxbman cj \XM!Xc` xkal ~wl fcwjolajlwl gblXelaec| > xd|~~ cyy fwm Ok|}|maxla~lwl~ kDkam `ln la Bmaj @mwxo 7Fgæwlwmdl~~" cjbmanl~ k fmbbxdolw` k nl~ Kanwl @cajcbkm! Wc`dmyxlbla vmw ¤gl`maal~´ `ln la mvmaxlw~n|ddl xc` l~~lwbkjal~ `majl `laalxdlbkjlf{xkcbcjkxdl f|adxocalw!Aæw`lwl c`~mbl mv Xelaec|fkaalx k vlnbmj~l Wc`fmw~ aw! =#7998! FcwwkjlXelaec|flwn gbl c`~mb~ k W
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: cj 7#7997 cjalva~ k ¤gl`maal~ wc`fmw~´ k W
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=#7998!

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