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P-Adic Hilbert Spaces

P-Adic Hilbert Spaces

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C
ommunications in
M
athematical
A
nalysis
Volume 1, Number 2, pp. 121–136, 2006ISSN 0973-3841© 2006 Research India Publications
Convergence of the Cesàro-like Means on
p
-adic Hilbert Spaces
Sandra N. Farrier
Department of Mathematics, Howard University,2441 6th Street N.W., Washington, DC 20059, USA(Communicated by Toka Diagana)
Abstract
Let
:
E
ω
E
ω
beanonexpansivemapping(possiblynonlinear)onthe
p
-adicHilbertspace
(
E
ω
,
·
,
·
,
·
)
. We introduce the Cesàro-like means:
n
x
:=
1
nn
k
=
1
α
k
k
x, x
E
ω
,
where
n
=
α
1
+···+
α
n
and
k
)
k
N
K
isasequenceofnonzeroelementssatisfyingsomeadditional assumptions. And, we provide results on both the strong and weak convergenceof the Cesàro-like means to a fixed point
y
of 
.
AMS Subject Classification:
Primary 54C40, 14E20; Secondary 46E25, 20C20.
Keywords
:
p
-adic Hilbert spaces, nonexpansive mappings.
1 Introduction
Inthedevelopmentofthefieldofnon-ArchimedeanFunctionalanalysis,therehasbeenparticularinterest in defining an analogue to the notion of a Hilbert Space. In fact, several definitions havebeen proposed and an outline of these can be found in [1]. The definition that we consider in ourstudy of nonexpansive mappings is the one given in [7] of a
p
-adic Hilbert space.Let
K
be a complete ultrameteric field and
ω
=
i
)
i
0
K
be a sequence of nonzero terms.Consider
E
ω
:=
c
0
N
,
K
,(
|
ω
i
|
12
)
i
0
=
x
=
(x
i
)
i
0
K
:
lim
n
→+∞
|
x
i
||
ω
i
|
12
=
0
.
We define the basis
(e
i
)
i
0
by letting
e
i
=
i,j
)
j
0
where
δ
i,j
is the Kronecker symbols,
δ
i,i
=
1and
δ
i,j
=
0 if 
i
=
j
.
E
ω
is a free Banach space with
(e
i
)
i
0
as an orthogonal basis, that is
E-mail: sfarrier@hotmail.com
 
122 Sandra N. Farrierevery
x
E
ω
can be written as,
x
=
i
0
x
i
e
i
,
where
x
=
sup
i
0
|
x
i
||
ω
i
|
12
. The bilinear form
·
,
· :
E
ω
×
E
ω
K
defined as,
x,y
=
i
0
x
i
y
i
ω
i
,
for all
x
=
i
0
x
i
e
i
E
ω
, and
y
=
i
0
y
i
e
i
E
ω
is symmetric, non-degenerate, and satisfies theCauchy-Schwartz inequality,
x,y
x

y
.
The space
(
E
ω
,
·
,
·
,
·
)
is called a
p
-adic Hilbert space
.The
p
-adic Hilbert space defined above coincides with the definition given byKhrennikov in [2] in his study of 
p
-adic Hilbert spaces and their applications to
p
-adic QuantumMechanics.In general,
p
-adic Hilbert spaces do not posses many of the fundamental characteristicsof Hilbert spaces. For example, the property that given any Hilbert space
, if 
D
,
D
=
D
⊥⊥
D
D
=
; does not always hold in the
p
-adic setting. Furthermore,properties such as the Parallelogram Law and Parseval’s Inequality fail (see [8]). Moreover,there are also several notable differences between the basic topological notions of 
p
-adic Hilbertspaces and their classical counterpart. For example, in
p
-adic Hilbert spaces all balls are clopen(both open and closed), and all points contained in a ball lie at its center. One of the mostnotable differences between Hilbert spaces and
p
-adic Hilbert spaces is the fact that the norm
x
 =√ |
x,x
|
K
in general. The only connection that we have thus far between the norm andthe inner product is given by the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality.The dissimilarities between the structure of 
p
-adic Hilbert spaces and Hilbert spaces giverise to the following questions in the context of nonexpansive mappings. Does the structure of 
p
-adic Hilbert spaces affect the behavior of nonexpansive mappings defined on these spaces?And, can we generate results in the
p
-adic setting on the convergence of these mappings andthere associated Cesàro means that parallels the results for Hilbert spaces?Nonexpansive mappings on uniformly convex spaces, particularly Hilbert spaces have beenextensively studied. Early contributions to the theory of nonexpansive mappings were madeby Baillon [4], Pazy [12], and Reich [13]. The development of the theory of nonexpansivemappings on Hilbert spaces has relied on the geometric structure of the space.Uniform convexityis a geometric property of Banach spaces which was introduced by Clark in 1936 as a resultof attempts made to classify Banach spaces according to the convexity of their unit balls, andHilbert spaces are classic examples of them. We will see shortly that in the non-Archimedeansetting the geometric structure of 
p
-adic Hilbert spaces does not play as significant a role as itdid in the classical setting.The Cesàro means of nonexpansive mappings on uniformly convex Banach spaces
E
aredefined as,
n
x
=
1
n
n
k
=
1
k
x,
for
x
E
.This definition does not always make sense in our study of nonexpansive mappings over
p
-adicHilbert spaces. To address this we replace1
n
by1
α
1
+···+
α
n
in the definition of the Cesàro
 
Convergence of the Cesàro-like Means on
p
-adic Hilbert Spaces 123means, where
k
)
k
N
is a sequence of non-zero elements of 
K
, and we introduce an analogue tothe Cesàro means which we refer to as the Cesàro-like means.For an arbitrary element
x
E
ω
, and a nonexpansive map
:
E
ω
E
ω
, the Cesàro-likemeans are defined as,
n
x
:=
1
nn
k
=
1
α
k
k
x, x
E
ω
,
where
n
=
α
1
+ · · · +
α
n
and
k
)
k
N
K
is a sequence of nonzero elements satisfyingsome additional assumptions. The sequence
k
)
k
N
plays a significant role in our work. Undersuitable conditions on the sequence we are able to prove that for
x
E
ω
if the iterates
n
x
converge strongly or weakly to a point
y
E
ω
, then the sequence of Cesàro-like means
n
x
alsoconverges to
y
, which is a fixed point of 
. And, the convergence of the Cesàro-like means isindependent of the sequence
k
)
k
N
K
.In this paper we study nonexpansive mappings on
p
-adic Hilbert spaces
(
E
ω
,
·
,
·
,
·
)
, andprovide results on both the strong and weak convergence of their associated Cesàro-like means.Webeginwithafewdefinitionsandbasicnotionsofnonexpansivemappings, ultrametricBanachspaces, and
p
-adic Hilbert spaces. This is followed by a discussion on the Cesàro-like meansin section three. In section four we prove that the Cesàro-like means converge strongly to afixed point of 
, and characterize the relationship between
x
E
ω
and lim
n
→∞
n
x
. We alsodemonstrate that the theorem on the strong convergence of the Cesàro-like means can be appliedtothealgebraicsumofboundedoperators. Sectionfivecontainsaresultontheweakconvergenceof the Cesàro-like means. The sixth and final section contains several examples which illustrateour work.
2 Preliminaries
This section contains a few definitions and basic notions of nonexpansive mappings, ultrametricBanach spaces, and
p
-adic Hilbert spaces.
Definition 2.1.
Let
(M,d)
be a metric space. A mapping
:
is a
Lipschitzian
if thereexists a number
λ >
0 such that,
d(Tx,Ty)
λ d(x,y),
for all
x,y
M.
The smallest such
λ
is said to be the
Lipschitz constant 
of 
, and we denote it by
L(T)
.The map
:
is said to be nonexpansive if 
L(T)
1. It is called a
contraction
if 
L(T) <
1.The Lipschitz constant of the n-th iterate
n
of a nonexpansive map
is such that
L(T 
n
)
[
L(T)
]
n
.
Throughout our discussion we let
= {
x
:
Tx
=
x
}
denote the set of fixed points of 
.
Definition2.2.
Afield
K
issaidtobean
ultrametricvaluedfield 
ifthereexistsamap
|·| :
K
R
+
such that(i)
|
a
| =
0 if and only if 
a
=
0,

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