418 R.F. Coleman
U,(Z/pZ)*-character ez -~' and slope c~. Moreover, this form satisfies the
F(q) mod p,+l .Both F and F ~ must be eigenforms for the full Hecke algebra of the re-spective weight because these algebras are commutative and therefore preservethe space of forms of a given slope. It is (a slight generalization of) a con-jecture of Gouv~a-Mazur [GM-F] that M may be taken to be zero as long asn > c~. When c~ = 0 this is a theorem of Hida [H-GR]. In this paper, we obtainno information about M (except in one example, discussed in Appendix II).However, using recent results of Daqing Wan, we have been able to give anupper bound, quadratic in ~, on the minimal allowable M for fixed N and p.We are also able to obtain results in the case when there exists more thanone normalized form of a given slope, character and level in Sect. B5. Thatis, we prove, Corollary B5.7.1, the existence of what Gouv~a and Mazur call"R-families" in [GM-F].For example, let A be the unique normalized weight 12, level 1, cusp form.Write
A(q) = ~ T,(n)qn .
Then r(7)=-7.2392. The above theorem implies, for any positive inte-ger k divisible by 6 and close enough 7-adically to 12, that there exists aunique normalized weight k, level 1, cuspidal eigenform Fk over Qp suchthat
FkIT7 = a(k)Fk
a(k) E Z7
with valuation 1. Moreover, for anypositive integer n, if k is sufficiently large and close 7-adically to 12,
Fk(q) = A(q) -pA(q7)mod7"
where p is the root ofX 2- "c(7)X-k-711 in Z7 with valuation 10. (We provea similar, more precise, statement for p = 2 in Appendix II.)The following is one important ingredient in the proof of Theorem A:Theorem B.
For integers 0 < i < p-1 there exist series Pu, i(s,T)E
which converge for all T and s such that
suchthat for integers k,
PN, (k, T)
is the characteristic series of A tkin's U-operatoractin 9 on overconvergent forms of weight k and (Z/pZ)*-character fl-k.
This considerably strengthens the main result of [GM-CS].Now let Mk, cl denote the space of classical modular forms of weight k on
defined over K. Then the eigenvalues of
on Mk, cj have valuationat most k- 1. For a character e on (Z/pZ)* we also let
denotethe subspace of forms of weight k and (Z/pZ*)-character e and set d(k,e,~)equal to the dimension of the subspace of
Mk, ct(ez -k)
consisting of forms ofslope c~.As a corollary of Theorem 8.1 of [C-CO] we obtain:Theorem C.
With notation as above, the set oJ'zeroes of Pu, i(k, T -I ) in Cpwith valuation strictly less than k- 1 is the same as the set of eigenvalues