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Punjab UniversityJournal of Mathematics (ISSN 1016-2526)Vol. 40 (2008) pp. 31-35

Common Fixed Point Theorems In Ultra Metric Spaces

K. P. R. Rao and G. N. V. KishoreDepartment of Applied MathematicsAcharya Nagarjuna University- Dr. M. R. Appa Row CampusNuzvid-521201, Krishna Dt. A. P., IndiaE-mail: kprrao2004@yahoo.com

Abstract.

The purpose of this paper is to prove some commonﬁxed point theorems for a pair of maps of Jungck type on a spher-ically complete metric space.

AMS (MOS) Subject Classiﬁcation Codes:

47H10, 54H25.

Key Words:

Ultra metric space, Spherically complete, Common ﬁxed point.1.

Introduction

Generally to prove ﬁxed or common ﬁxed point theorems for maps satisfyingstrictly contractive conditions, one has to assume the continuity of maps and com-pact metric spaces. In spherically complete ultra metric spaces, the continuity of maps are not necessary to obtain ﬁxed points. First we state some known deﬁni-tions.

Deﬁnition 1.

([3]): Let (

X,d

) be a metric space. If the metric

d

satisﬁes strongtriangle inequality:

d

(

x,y

)

≤

max

{

d

(

x,z

)

,d

(

z,y

)

}∀

x,y,z

∈

X

then

d

is called an ultra metric on

X

and the pair (

X,d

) is called an ultra metricspace.

Deﬁnition 2.

([3]): An ultra metric space (

X,d

) is said to be spherically completeif every shrinking collection of balls in

X

has a non empty intersection.Recently Gajic [1] proved the following

Theorem 3.

(Theorem 1, [1]): Let

(

X,d

)

be a spherically complete ultra metricspace. If

T

:

X

−→

X

is a mapping such that

d

(

Tx,Ty

)

< max

{

d

(

x,y

)

,d

(

x,Tx

)

,d

(

y,Ty

)

}∀

x,y

∈

X,x

=

y

then

T

has a unique ﬁxed point in

X

.

Now we extend this Theorem for a pair of maps of Jungck type.

31

32 K. P. R. Rao and G. N. V. Kishore

2.

Main Results

Theorem 4.

Let

(

X,d

)

be a spherically complete ultra metric space. If

f

and

T

are self maps on

X

satisfying

T

(

X

)

⊆

f

(

X

)

,

(2.1)

d

(

Tx,Ty

)

< max

{

d

(

fx,fy

)

,d

(

fx,Tx

)

,d

(

fy,Ty

)

}∀

x,y

∈

X,x

=

y

(2.2)

then there exists

z

∈

X

such that

fz

=

Tz

.Further if

f

and

T

are coincidentally commuting at

z

then

z

is the unique common ﬁxed point of

f

and

T

.Proof.

Let

B

a

= (

fa

;

d

(

fa,Ta

)) denote the closed sphere centered at

fa

with theradius

d

(

fa,Ta

) and let

A

be the collection of these spheres for all

a

∈

X

. Then therelation

B

a

≤

B

b

iﬀ

B

b

⊆

B

a

is a partial order on

A

. Let

A

1

be a totally orderedsub family of

A

. Since (

X,d

) is spherically complete , we have

B

a

∈

A

1

B

a

=

B

=

φ.

Let

fb

∈

B

and

B

a

∈

A

1

. Then

fb

∈

B

a

. Hence

d

(

fb,fa

)

≤

d

(

fa,Ta

)

······

(i)If

a

=

b

then

B

a

=

B

b

. Assume that

a

=

b

.Let

x

∈

B

b

. Then

d

(

x,fb

)

≤

d

(

fb,Tb

)

≤

max

{

d

(

fb,fa

)

,d

(

fa,Ta

)

,d

(

Ta,Tb

)

}

= max

{

d

(

fa,Ta

)

,d

(

Ta,Tb

)

}

from

(

i

)

<

max

{

d

(

fa,fb

)

,d

(

fa,Ta

)

,d

(

fb,Tb

)

}

from

(2

.

2)=

d

(

fa,Ta

)

........

(

ii

)Now ,

d

(

x,fa

)

≤

max

{

d

(

x,fb

)

,d

(

fb,fa

)

} ≤

d

(

fa,Ta

) from(i) and (ii).Thus

x

∈

B

a

. Hence

B

b

⊆

B

a

for any

B

a

∈

A

1

. Thus

B

b

is an upper boundin

A

for the family

A

1

and hence by Zorn’s Lemma,

A

has a maximal element,say

B

z

,z

∈

X

.Suppose

fz

=

Tz

. Since

Tz

∈

T

(

X

)

⊆

f

(

X

), there exists

w

∈

X

such that

Tz

=

fw

. Clearly

z

=

w

. Now from (2.2) we have

d

(

fw,Tw

) =

d

(

Tz,Tw

)

<

max

{

d

(

fz,fw

)

,d

(

fz,Tz

)

,d

(

fw,Tw

)

}

from

(2

.

2)=

d

(

fz,fw

)Thus

fz /

∈

B

w

. Hence

B

z

⊆

B

w

. It is a contradiction to the maximality of

B

z

.Hence

fz

=

Tz

.Further assume that

f

and

T

are coincidentally commuting at

z

.Then

f

2

z

=

f

(

fz

) =

fTz

=

Tfz

=

T

(

Tz

) =

T

2

z

.Suppose

fz

=

z

. Now from (2.2), we have

d

(

Tfz,Tz

)

<

max

{

d

(

f

2

z,fz

)

,d

(

f

2

z,Tfz

)

,d

(

fz,Tz

)

}

=

d

(

Tfz,Tz

)

.

Hence

fz

=

z

. Thus

z

=

fz

=

Tz

. Uniqueness of common ﬁxed point of

f

and

T

follows easily from(2.2).

Now we give an example to illustrate our Theorem 4.

Common Fixed Point Theorems In Ultra .... 33

Example 5.

. Let

X

=

R

,

d

(

x,y

) =

0

if x

=

y

1

if x

=

y

Deﬁne

T,f

:

X

−→

X

as

Tx

= 1

and

fx

=

x

+12

,

∀

x

∈

X

.All conditions of Theorem 4 are satisﬁed. Clearly 1 is the unique common ﬁxed point of

T

and

f

.

Corollary 6.

Theorem 4 holds if the inequality (2.2) is replaced by

d

(

Tx,Ty

)

< max

{

d

(

fx,fy

)

,d

(

fx,Tx

)

,d

(

fy,Ty

)

,d

(

fx,Ty

)

,d

(

fy,Tx

)

}∀

x,y

∈

X,x

=

y

(2.3)

Proof.

Since

d

(

fx,Ty

)

≤

max

{

d

(

fx,fy

)

,d

(

fy,Ty

)

}

and

d

(

fy,Tx

)

≤

max

{

d

(

fy,fx

)

,d

(

fx,Tx

)

}

it follows that (2.3) implies that (2.2).

Corollary 7.

Taking

f

=

I

(Identity map) in Theorem 4 , we obtain Theorem 1 of [1].Now we generalize Theorem 4 when T is a multi-valued map. Let

C

(

X

)

denotethe class of all non empty compact subsets of

X

. For

A,B

∈

C

(

X

)

, the Hausdorﬀ metric is deﬁned as

H

(

A,B

) = max

sup

d

(

x,B

)

x

∈

A

,

sup

d

(

y,A

)

y

∈

B

where

d

(

x,A

) =

inf

{

d

(

x,a

) :

a

∈

A

}

.

Deﬁnition 8.

Let (

X,d

) be an ultra metric space,

f

:

X

−→

X

and

T

:

X

−→

C

(

X

).

f

and

T

are said to be coincidentally commuting at

z

∈

X

if

fz

∈

Tz

implies

fTz

⊆

Tfz

.

Theorem 9.

Let

(

X,d

)

be a spherically complete ultra metric space. Let

f

:

X

−→

X

and

T

:

X

−→

C

(

X

)

be satisfying

Tx

⊆

f

(

X

)

,

∀

x

∈

X,

(2.4)

H

(

Tx,Ty

)

< max

{

d

(

fx,fy

)

,d

(

fx,Tx

)

,d

(

fy,Ty

)

}∀

x,y

∈

X,x

=

y.

(2.5)

Then there exists

z

∈

X

such that

fz

∈

Tz

.Further assume that

d

(

fx,fu

)

≤

H

(

Tfy,Tu

)

∀

x,y,u

∈

X

w

ithfx

∈

Ty

(2.6)

and

f

a

nd T

a

re coincidentally commuting atz.

(2.7)

Then

fz

is the unique common ﬁxed point of

f

and

T

.Proof.

Let

B

a

= (

fa

;

d

(

fa,Ta

)) denote the closed sphere centered at

fa

with theradius

d

(

fa,Ta

) and let

A

be the collection of these spheres for all

a

∈

X

. Then therelation

B

a

≤

B

b

iﬀ

B

b

⊆

B

a

is a partial order on

A

. Let

A

1

be a totally orderedsub family of

A

. Since (

X,d

) is spherically complete , we have

B

a

∈

A

1

B

a

=

B

=

φ.

Let

fb

∈

B

and

B

a

∈

A

1

. Then

fb

∈

B

a

.Hence

d

(

fb,fa

)

≤

d

(

fa,Ta

)

···

(i)If

a

=

b

then

B

a

=

B

b

. Assume that

a

=

b

.Let

x

∈

B

b

. Then

d

(

x,fb

)

≤

d

(

fb,Tb

).