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Common Fixed Point Theorems in Ultra Metric Spaces

Common Fixed Point Theorems in Ultra Metric Spaces

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Punjab UniversityJournal of Mathematics (ISSN 1016-2526)Vol. 40 (2008) pp. 31-35
Common Fixed Point Theorems In Ultra Metric Spaces
K. P. R. Rao and G. N. V. KishoreDepartment of Applied MathematicsAcharya Nagarjuna University- Dr. M. R. Appa Row CampusNuzvid-521201, Krishna Dt. A. P., IndiaE-mail: kprrao2004@yahoo.com
Abstract.
The purpose of this paper is to prove some commonﬁxed point theorems for a pair of maps of Jungck type on a spher-ically complete metric space.
AMS (MOS) Subject Classiﬁcation Codes:
47H10, 54H25.
Key Words:
Ultra metric space, Spherically complete, Common ﬁxed point.1.
Introduction
Generally to prove ﬁxed or common ﬁxed point theorems for maps satisfyingstrictly contractive conditions, one has to assume the continuity of maps and com-pact metric spaces. In spherically complete ultra metric spaces, the continuity of maps are not necessary to obtain ﬁxed points. First we state some known deﬁni-tions.
Deﬁnition 1.
([3]): Let (
X,d
) be a metric space. If the metric
d
satisﬁes strongtriangle inequality:
d
(
x,y
)
max
{
d
(
x,z
)
,d
(
z,y
)
}∀
x,y,z
then
d
is called an ultra metric on
and the pair (
X,d
) is called an ultra metricspace.
Deﬁnition 2.
([3]): An ultra metric space (
X,d
) is said to be spherically completeif every shrinking collection of balls in
has a non empty intersection.Recently Gajic [1] proved the following
Theorem 3.
(Theorem 1, [1]): Le
(
X,d
)
be a spherically complete ultra metricspace. If
:
is a mapping such that
d
(
Tx,Ty
)
< max
{
d
(
x,y
)
,d
(
x,Tx
)
,d
(
y,Ty
)
}∀
x,y
X,x
=
y
then
has a unique ﬁxed point in
.
Now we extend this Theorem for a pair of maps of Jungck type.
31

32 K. P. R. Rao and G. N. V. Kishore
2.
Main Results
Theorem 4.
Let
(
X,d
)
be a spherically complete ultra metric space. If
and
are self maps on
satisfying
(
)
(
)
,
(2.1)
d
(
Tx,Ty
)
< max
{
d
(
fx,fy
)
,d
(
fx,Tx
)
,d
(
fy,Ty
)
}∀
x,y
X,x
=
y
(2.2)
then there exists
z
such that
fz
=
Tz
.Further if
and
are coincidentally commuting at
z
then
z
is the unique common  ﬁxed point of
and
.Proof.
Let
B
a
= (
fa
;
d
(
fa,Ta
)) denote the closed sphere centered at
fa
d
(
fa,Ta
) and let
A
be the collection of these spheres for all
a
. Then therelation
B
a
B
b
iﬀ
B
b
B
a
is a partial order on
A
. Let
A
1
be a totally orderedsub family of
A
. Since (
X,d
) is spherically complete , we have
B
a
A
1
B
a
=
B
=
φ.
Let
fb
B
and
B
a
A
1
. Then
fb
B
a
. Hence
d
(
fb,fa
)
d
(
fa,Ta
)
······
(i)If
a
=
b
then
B
a
=
B
b
. Assume that
a
=
b
.Let
x
B
b
. Then
d
(
x,fb
)
d
(
fb,Tb
)
max
{
d
(
fb,fa
)
,d
(
fa,Ta
)
,d
(
Ta,Tb
)
}
= max
{
d
(
fa,Ta
)
,d
(
Ta,Tb
)
}
from
(
i
)
<
max
{
d
(
fa,fb
)
,d
(
fa,Ta
)
,d
(
fb,Tb
)
}
from
(2
.
2)=
d
(
fa,Ta
)
........
(
ii
)Now ,
d
(
x,fa
)
max
{
d
(
x,fb
)
,d
(
fb,fa
)
}
d
(
fa,Ta
) from(i) and (ii).Thus
x
B
a
. Hence
B
b
B
a
for any
B
a
A
1
. Thus
B
b
is an upper boundin
A
for the family
A
1
and hence by Zorn’s Lemma,
A
has a maximal element,say
B
z
,z
.Suppose
fz
=
Tz
. Since
Tz
(
)
(
), there exists
w
such that
Tz
=
fw
. Clearly
z
=
w
. Now from (2.2) we have
d
(
fw,Tw
) =
d
(
Tz,Tw
)
<
max
{
d
(
fz,fw
)
,d
(
fz,Tz
)
,d
(
fw,Tw
)
}
from
(2
.
2)=
d
(
fz,fw
)Thus
fz /
B
w
. Hence
B
z
B
w
. It is a contradiction to the maximality of
B
z
.Hence
fz
=
Tz
.Further assume that
and
are coincidentally commuting at
z
.Then
2
z
=
(
fz
) =
fTz
=
Tfz
=
(
Tz
) =
2
z
.Suppose
fz
=
z
. Now from (2.2), we have
d
(
Tfz,Tz
)
<
max
{
d
(
2
z,fz
)
,d
(
2
z,Tfz
)
,d
(
fz,Tz
)
}
=
d
(
Tfz,Tz
)
.
Hence
fz
=
z
. Thus
z
=
fz
=
Tz
. Uniqueness of common ﬁxed point of
and
follows easily from(2.2).
Now we give an example to illustrate our Theorem 4.

Common Fixed Point Theorems In Ultra .... 33
Example 5.
. Let
=
R
,
d
(
x,y
) =
0
if x
=
y
1
if x
=
y
Deﬁne
T,
:
as
Tx
= 1
and
fx
=
x
+12
,
x
.All conditions of Theorem 4 are satisﬁed. Clearly 1 is the unique common ﬁxepoint of
and
.
Corollary 6.
Theorem 4 holds if the inequality (2.2) is replaced by
d
(
Tx,Ty
)
< max
{
d
(
fx,fy
)
,d
(
fx,Tx
)
,d
(
fy,Ty
)
,d
(
fx,Ty
)
,d
(
fy,Tx
)
}
x,y
X,x
=
y
(2.3)
Proof.
Since
d
(
fx,Ty
)
max
{
d
(
fx,fy
)
,d
(
fy,Ty
)
}
and
d
(
fy,Tx
)
max
{
d
(
fy,fx
)
,d
(
fx,Tx
)
}
it follows that (2.3) implies that (2.2).
Corollary 7.
Taking
=
(Identity map) in Theorem 4 , we obtain Theorem 1 of [1].Now we generalize Theorem 4 when T is a multi-valued map. Let
(
)
denotethe class of all non empty compact subsets of
. For
A,B
(
)
, the Hausdorﬀ metric is deﬁned as
(
A,B
) = max
sup
d
(
x,B
)
x
A
,
sup
d
(
y,A
)
y
B
where
d
(
x,A
) =
inf
{
d
(
x,a
) :
a
A
}
.
Deﬁnition 8.
Let (
X,d
) be an ultra metric space,
:
and
:
(
).
and
are said to be coincidentally commuting at
z
if
fz
Tz
implies
fTz
Tfz
.
Theorem 9.
Let
(
X,d
)
be a spherically complete ultra metric space. Let
:
and
:
(
)
be satisfying
Tx
(
)
,
x
X,
(2.4)
(
Tx,Ty
)
< max
{
d
(
fx,fy
)
,d
(
fx,Tx
)
,d
(
fy,Ty
)
}∀
x,y
X,x
=
y.
(2.5)
Then there exists
z
such that
fz
Tz
.Further assume that
d
(
fx,fu
)
(
Tfy,Tu
)
x,y,u
ithfx
Ty
(2.6)
and
nd
re coincidentally commuting atz.
(2.7)
Then
fz
is the unique common ﬁxed point of
and
.Proof.
Let
B
a
= (
fa
;
d
(
fa,Ta
)) denote the closed sphere centered at
fa
d
(
fa,Ta
) and let
A
be the collection of these spheres for all
a
. Then therelation
B
a
B
b
iﬀ
B
b
B
a
is a partial order on
A
. Let
A
1
be a totally orderedsub family of
A
. Since (
X,d
) is spherically complete , we have
B
a
A
1
B
a
=
B
=
φ.
Let
fb
B
and
B
a
A
1
. Then
fb
B
a
.Hence
d
(
fb,fa
)
d
(
fa,Ta
)
···
(i)If
a
=
b
then
B
a
=
B
b
. Assume that
a
=
b
.Let
x
B
b
. Then
d
(
x,fb
)
d
(
fb,Tb
).