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Common Fixed Point Theorems in Ultra Metric Spaces

Common Fixed Point Theorems in Ultra Metric Spaces

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Punjab UniversityJournal of Mathematics (ISSN 1016-2526)Vol. 40 (2008) pp. 31-35
Common Fixed Point Theorems In Ultra Metric Spaces
K. P. R. Rao and G. N. V. KishoreDepartment of Applied MathematicsAcharya Nagarjuna University- Dr. M. R. Appa Row CampusNuzvid-521201, Krishna Dt. A. P., IndiaE-mail: kprrao2004@yahoo.com
Abstract.
The purpose of this paper is to prove some commonfixed point theorems for a pair of maps of Jungck type on a spher-ically complete metric space.
AMS (MOS) Subject Classification Codes:
47H10, 54H25.
Key Words:
Ultra metric space, Spherically complete, Common fixed point.1.
Introduction
Generally to prove fixed or common fixed point theorems for maps satisfyingstrictly contractive conditions, one has to assume the continuity of maps and com-pact metric spaces. In spherically complete ultra metric spaces, the continuity of maps are not necessary to obtain fixed points. First we state some known defini-tions.
Definition 1.
([3]): Let (
X,d
) be a metric space. If the metric
d
satisfies strongtriangle inequality:
d
(
x,y
)
max
{
d
(
x,z
)
,d
(
z,y
)
}∀
x,y,z
then
d
is called an ultra metric on
and the pair (
X,d
) is called an ultra metricspace.
Definition 2.
([3]): An ultra metric space (
X,d
) is said to be spherically completeif every shrinking collection of balls in
has a non empty intersection.Recently Gajic [1] proved the following
Theorem 3.
(Theorem 1, [1]): Le
(
X,d
)
be a spherically complete ultra metricspace. If 
:
is a mapping such that 
d
(
Tx,Ty
)
< max
{
d
(
x,y
)
,d
(
x,Tx
)
,d
(
y,Ty
)
}∀
x,y
X,x
=
y
then 
has a unique fixed point in 
.
Now we extend this Theorem for a pair of maps of Jungck type.
31
 
32 K. P. R. Rao and G. N. V. Kishore
2.
Main Results
Theorem 4.
Let 
(
X,d
)
be a spherically complete ultra metric space. If 
and 
are self maps on 
satisfying 
(
)
(
)
,
(2.1)
d
(
Tx,Ty
)
< max
{
d
(
fx,fy
)
,d
(
fx,Tx
)
,d
(
fy,Ty
)
}∀
x,y
X,x
=
y
(2.2)
then there exists
z
such that 
fz
=
Tz
.Further if 
and 
are coincidentally commuting at 
z
then 
z
is the unique common  fixed point of 
and 
.Proof.
Let
B
a
= (
fa
;
d
(
fa,Ta
)) denote the closed sphere centered at
fa
with theradius
d
(
fa,Ta
) and let
A
be the collection of these spheres for all
a
. Then therelation
B
a
B
b
iff 
B
b
B
a
is a partial order on
A
. Let
A
1
be a totally orderedsub family of 
A
. Since (
X,d
) is spherically complete , we have
B
a
A
1
B
a
=
B
=
φ.
Let
fb
B
and
B
a
A
1
. Then
fb
B
a
. Hence
d
(
fb,fa
)
d
(
fa,Ta
)
······
(i)If 
a
=
b
then
B
a
=
B
b
. Assume that
a
=
b
.Let
x
B
b
. Then
d
(
x,fb
)
d
(
fb,Tb
)
max
{
d
(
fb,fa
)
,d
(
fa,Ta
)
,d
(
Ta,Tb
)
}
= max
{
d
(
fa,Ta
)
,d
(
Ta,Tb
)
}
from
(
i
)
<
max
{
d
(
fa,fb
)
,d
(
fa,Ta
)
,d
(
fb,Tb
)
}
from
(2
.
2)=
d
(
fa,Ta
)
........
(
ii
)Now ,
d
(
x,fa
)
max
{
d
(
x,fb
)
,d
(
fb,fa
)
}
d
(
fa,Ta
) from(i) and (ii).Thus
x
B
a
. Hence
B
b
B
a
for any
B
a
A
1
. Thus
B
b
is an upper boundin
A
for the family
A
1
and hence by Zorn’s Lemma,
A
has a maximal element,say
B
z
,z
.Suppose
fz
=
Tz
. Since
Tz
(
)
(
), there exists
w
such that
Tz
=
fw
. Clearly
z
=
w
. Now from (2.2) we have
d
(
fw,Tw
) =
d
(
Tz,Tw
)
<
max
{
d
(
fz,fw
)
,d
(
fz,Tz
)
,d
(
fw,Tw
)
}
from
(2
.
2)=
d
(
fz,fw
)Thus
fz /
B
w
. Hence
B
z
B
w
. It is a contradiction to the maximality of 
B
z
.Hence
fz
=
Tz
.Further assume that
and
are coincidentally commuting at
z
.Then
2
z
=
(
fz
) =
fTz
=
Tfz
=
(
Tz
) =
2
z
.Suppose
fz
=
z
. Now from (2.2), we have
d
(
Tfz,Tz
)
<
max
{
d
(
2
z,fz
)
,d
(
2
z,Tfz
)
,d
(
fz,Tz
)
}
=
d
(
Tfz,Tz
)
.
Hence
fz
=
z
. Thus
z
=
fz
=
Tz
. Uniqueness of common fixed point of 
and
follows easily from(2.2).
Now we give an example to illustrate our Theorem 4.
 
Common Fixed Point Theorems In Ultra .... 33
Example 5.
. Let 
=
R
,
d
(
x,y
) =
0
if x
=
y
1
if x
=
y
Define
T,
:
as
Tx
= 1
and 
fx
=
x
+12
,
x
.All conditions of Theorem 4 are satisfied. Clearly 1 is the unique common fixepoint of 
and 
.
Corollary 6.
Theorem 4 holds if the inequality (2.2) is replaced by 
d
(
Tx,Ty
)
< max
{
d
(
fx,fy
)
,d
(
fx,Tx
)
,d
(
fy,Ty
)
,d
(
fx,Ty
)
,d
(
fy,Tx
)
}
x,y
X,x
=
y
(2.3)
Proof.
Since
d
(
fx,Ty
)
max
{
d
(
fx,fy
)
,d
(
fy,Ty
)
}
and
d
(
fy,Tx
)
max
{
d
(
fy,fx
)
,d
(
fx,Tx
)
}
it follows that (2.3) implies that (2.2).
Corollary 7.
Taking 
=
(Identity map) in Theorem 4 , we obtain Theorem 1 of [1].Now we generalize Theorem 4 when T is a multi-valued map. Let 
(
)
denotethe class of all non empty compact subsets of 
. For 
A,B
(
)
, the Hausdorff metric is defined as
(
A,B
) = max
sup
d
(
x,B
)
x
A
,
sup
d
(
y,A
)
y
B
where
d
(
x,A
) =
inf 
{
d
(
x,a
) :
a
A
}
.
Definition 8.
Let (
X,d
) be an ultra metric space,
:
and
:
(
).
and
are said to be coincidentally commuting at
z
if 
fz
Tz
implies
fTz
Tfz
.
Theorem 9.
Let 
(
X,d
)
be a spherically complete ultra metric space. Let 
:
and 
:
(
)
be satisfying 
Tx
(
)
,
x
X,
(2.4)
(
Tx,Ty
)
< max
{
d
(
fx,fy
)
,d
(
fx,Tx
)
,d
(
fy,Ty
)
}∀
x,y
X,x
=
y.
(2.5)
Then there exists
z
such that 
fz
Tz
.Further assume that 
d
(
fx,fu
)
(
Tfy,Tu
)
x,y,u
ithfx
Ty
(2.6)
and 
nd
re coincidentally commuting atz.
(2.7)
Then 
fz
is the unique common fixed point of 
and 
.Proof.
Let
B
a
= (
fa
;
d
(
fa,Ta
)) denote the closed sphere centered at
fa
with theradius
d
(
fa,Ta
) and let
A
be the collection of these spheres for all
a
. Then therelation
B
a
B
b
iff 
B
b
B
a
is a partial order on
A
. Let
A
1
be a totally orderedsub family of 
A
. Since (
X,d
) is spherically complete , we have
B
a
A
1
B
a
=
B
=
φ.
Let
fb
B
and
B
a
A
1
. Then
fb
B
a
.Hence
d
(
fb,fa
)
d
(
fa,Ta
)
···
(i)If 
a
=
b
then
B
a
=
B
b
. Assume that
a
=
b
.Let
x
B
b
. Then
d
(
x,fb
)
d
(
fb,Tb
).

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