This is one of my best HRC-based zapper designs and made easy and cheap to build,starting with a "LED Flasher kit" from All Electronics (http://www.allelectronics.com/) (costabout $3 for the kit although mostly just using the kit's printed circuit board and a few of itselectronic parts.) I used a small plastic food storage container as its chassis. Oddly, most ofmy records have vanished re this instrument's development, done 2 years ago; so here iswhat is easily available right now for this page, and ought to be enough for someone withsome familiarity with building electronic gizmos to reproduce it. At this point one would needto create their own parts list from the schematic and layout shown above, to build this gizmo.It features a handhold current indicating LED; a buffered output for solid output waveformdespite varying circuit load; using a low battery usage CMOS IC circuit; and a dual duty cyclemode to select the usual 35% duty cycle and also its complementary waveform, 65% dutycycle. Frequency is set for the usual zapper 30 KHz range pulse repetition rate, 9 Volt peakoutput.One of this design's best features is the use of the CMOS 555 IC's FET that shorts to groundduring the low-going part of the output signal; but in this design, this FET (pin 7 of the IC) isused to provide a fast dump of the charge absorbed by the body each positive part of theoutput cycle, dumping the charge through a LED so the amplitude of this current is quitevisible to the experimenter; this shows that the entire circuit is working in use, as well as aqualitative measure of the zapping current through the user, including the adequacy of thedampness of the layer of wet paper towel covering the copper tubing handholds. Here it is upside down, but powered up and output also loaded by handholds, the green LEDshowing handhold current, its green LED's output light intensity is a function of the actualhandhold current, thus providing feedback to the experimenter as to continuity of output circuitand load. The red LED is a power-on indicator.