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Gary Lim Mphil

Gary Lim Mphil

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A study of the Chinese community andeconomic developments in WestBorneo residency during 1880s to 1930
Research Master Thesis
Lim Jian Ming GaryHistory department/0856150garylim1983@gmail.comSteeenstraat 3A, 2312 BSSupervisors:Blussé van Oud Alblas, Prof.dr.J.L.Dr. Thomas LindbladENCOMPASS PROGRAMMEHistory departmentUniversiteit Leiden, The NetherlandsAugust 2011
 
2
Content Page
 
Introduction
a.
 
Aim and introduction …………………………………………………… 4
  b.
 
Debate
and methodologies …..………………………………………
.
….. 7
 c.
 
Structure of the thesis …………………………………………………...
. 11
Chapter One: Geography and socio-political settings of West Borneo
1.1 Geographical information of West Borneo residency …………………….
161.2 The
Dayak and Malay peoples…...
............................................................... 201.3 The population of West Borneo residency from 1895-1930(Official and rough estimates)
……
..
…………………………
..
…….……. 24
 1.4 Early trading contacts and the coming of Chinese gold miners
….……....
. 261.5 Sino-
Dutch relations during the late nineteenth century …………….…… 31
 
Chapter Two: The Chinese society and their social institutions inWest Borneo residency
2.1
The Chinese community of West Borneo residency………………………. 35
 
2.2 The issue of Chinese “ethnicity”…………………………………………... 40
 2.3
Place of origins: The Chinese dialect groups in the residency ………...
..... 422.4 A study of Chinese distributions and population in WestBorneo residency dur 
ing 1850s to1930 …………………………….…..
.... 462.5 Chinese settlements in urban region: with Pontianak region as
an example ………………………………………………………………
... 482.6 The
rural Chinese settlement: Sintang division (afdeeling) ………..………
552.7 A study of Overseas Chinese through their religious cult-beliefs,
ancestral worship and social organisations ……………………………….
. 62
2.7.1 Chinese “rebellion” of 1914: organising through social institutions ……. 71
 2.7.2 Chinese temple as a form of socio-
economic institution …………………73
 2.7.3 Chinese secret societies: Yi-
Xing Guan (Ngee Hin Kongsi) …………….77
 
Chapter Three: Chinese economic activities and the Colonial interests
 
3.1 Private investors versus
Smallholder cultivation ………………..………
.. 80
3.2 Coconut and rubber cultivation …………………………………………
... 823.3
 
Rice cultivation, irrigation projects, shortages and import of rice supplies
………………………………………………………………
873.4 Credit system versus b
anking institutions ……………………………..…
. 90
 
33.5 Other Dutch colonial measures: The extension of KPM shipping networks,coinage purges
and closure of revenue „farms‟ in West Borneo
residency
……………………………………………………………………... 9
2
Conclusion
…………………………………………………………………….....…95
 
Appendix (English-Chinese translation)
……………………………..……
.. 98
Bibliography
………………………………………………………………………
101
Maps:1.)
 
Map of West Borneo residency (17)2.)
 
Map of Southeast China (42)3.)
 
Map of Chaozhou (Teochew) and Meizhou (Hakka) regions (45)Tables:1.)
 
West Borneo‟s
 Inlandsch zelfbestuur 
and
gouvernementslanden
(19)
 
2.)
 
West Borneo population 1895-1930 (24)3.)
 
The eight counties of Guangdong province with the smallest proportion of cultivable land(43)4.)
 
Sub-ethnic or dialect groups among Chinese in West Borneo, 1930 census (47)5.)
 
Total number of Chinese in Lara and Lumar districts in 1857 (Bengkayang region, usedto be part of Da-Gang kongsi) (47)6.)
 
Distribution of Chinese in Lara and Lumar districts according to dialect groups 1857)(48)7.)
 
Table 7a. The distribution of different Chinese dialect groups in Pontianak and itssurrounding, including Sungai Kakap (51)Table 7b. Overview of the different occupation by Chinese people in the Pontianak district, surroundings and Sungai Kakap (52)8.)
 
List of Information about the Chinese people, community and economic activities inSintang districts (57-62)9.)
 
List of agricultural concessions issued by the Dutch colonial government during the period 1911-18, in the region of Pontianak (81)Charts and model:1.)
 
Population growth in West Borneo 1895-1930 (25)2.)
 
Abstract model for exchange between a drainage basin centre and an Overseas power 
(Bronson‟s theory) (93)
 Photographs:1.)
 
Chinese Taoist temple: Xuan Tian Shangdi miao, Sungai Kakap (52)2.)
 
Epigraphic material: A horizontal inscribed board hanged in the inner hall of the temple(53)3.)
 
The hall of the Reverent Lord of Broad Compassion (Baosheng Dadi) (54)4.)
 
An example of a Southeast Asian Chinese Clan, Huang clan (69)5.)
 
Epigraphic materials: He fo temple, Pontianak (76)6.)
 
Blank diploma of Chinese secret societies (Ngee Hin) (78)7.)
 
A 1861 diploma confiscated by the Dutch authority in Sekajam, West Borneo (79)

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