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Mathematics Class VIIIRatings:

5.0

(1)|Views: 26,145|Likes: 69Published by nikhilam.com

Mathematics Class VIII

(provided by nikhilam.com in public interest)

(provided by nikhilam.com in public interest)

Mathematics Class VIII

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/14407274/Mathematics-Class-VIII

04/06/2014

Contents

Forewordiii Prefacev

Just for Fun

275

R

ATIONAL

N

UMBERS

1

1.1 Introduction

In Mathematics, we frequently come across simple equations to be solved. For example,the equation

x

+ 2 =13(1)is solved when

x

= 11, because this value of

x

satisfies the given equation. The solution11 is a

natural number

. On the other hand, for the equation

x

+ 5 =5(2)the solution gives the

whole number

0 (zero). If we consider only natural numbers,equation (2) cannot be solved. To solve equations like (2), we added the number zero tothe collection of natural numbers and obtained the whole numbers. Even whole numberswill not be sufficient to solve equations of type

x

+ 18 =5(3)Do you see ‘why’? We require the number –13 which is not a whole number. Thisled us to think of

integers, (positive and negative)

. Note that the positive integerscorrespond to natural numbers. One may think that we have enough numbers to solve allsimple equations with the available list of integers. Consider the equations2

x

=3(4)5

x

+ 7 =0(5)for which we cannot find a solution from the integers. (Check this)We need the numbers

32

to solve equation (4) and

75

−

to solveequation (5). This leads us to the collection of

rational numbers

.We have already seen basic operations on rationalnumbers. We now try to explore some properties of operationson the different types of numbers seen so far.

Rational Numbers

CHAPTER

1

2

M

ATHEMATICS

1.2 Properties of Rational Numbers

1.2.1 Closure

(i) Whole numbers

Let us revisit the closure property for all the operations on whole numbers in brief.

Operation Numbers Remarks

Addition0 + 5 = 5, a whole numberWhole numbers are closed4 + 7 = ... . Is it a whole number?under addition.In general,

a

+

b

is a wholenumber for any two wholenumbers

a

and

b

.Subtraction5 – 7 = – 2, which is not aWhole numbers are

not

closedwhole number.under subtraction.Multiplication0 × 3 = 0, a whole numberWhole numbers are closed3 × 7 = ... . Is it a whole number?under multiplication.In general, if

a

and

b

are any twowhole numbers, their product

ab

is a whole number.Division5

÷

8 =

58

, which is not awhole number.Check for closure property under all the four operations for natural numbers.

(ii) Integers

Let us now recall the operations under which integers are closed.

Operation Numbers Remarks

Addition– 6 + 5 = – 1, an integerIntegers are closed underIs – 7 + (–5) an integer?addition.Is 8 + 5 an integer?In general,

a

+

b

is an integerfor any two integers

a

and

b

.Subtraction7 – 5 = 2, an integerIntegers are closed underIs 5 – 7 an integer?subtraction.– 6 – 8 = – 14, an integerWhole numbers are

not

closedunder division.

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