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P. 1
Bai Tap Bat Dang Thuc

Bai Tap Bat Dang Thuc

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Published by huyden181

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Published by: huyden181 on Apr 19, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/02/2013

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Chuy\u00ean\u0111\u1ec1 B\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c
1
B\u1ea4 T \u0110\u1eb2 NG TH\u1ee8 C C\u00d4 SI
V\u00c0 C\u00c1C B\u1ea4 T \u0110\u1eb2 NG TH\u1ee8 C SUY R\u1ed8 NG
L\u1edd i m\u1edf \u0111\u1ea7 u

B\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c l\u00e0 m\u1ed9 t l\u0129nh v\u1ef1 c kh\u00f3 trong ch\u01b0 \u01a1 ng tr\u00ecnh to\u00e1n h\u1ecd c ph\u1ed5 th\u00f4ng,
song n\u00f3 l\u1ea1 i lu\u00f4n c\u00f3 s\u1ee9 c h\u1ea5 p d\u1eab n, thu h\u00fat s\u1ef1 t\u00ecm t\u00f2i, \u00f3c s\u00e1ng t\u1ea1 o c\u1ee7 a nh\u1eef ng ng\u01b0 \u1edd i
y\u00eau to\u00e1n. D\u1ea1 ng to\u00e1n v\u1ec1 b\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c th\u01b0 \u1edd ng c\u00f3 m\u1eb7 t trong c\u00e1c k\u00ec thi tuy\u1ec3 n sinh,
thi h\u1ecd c sinh gi\u1ecf i hay c\u00e1c k\u00ec thi Olympic.

C\u00f3 r\u1ea5 t nhi\u1ec1 u ph\u01b0 \u01a1 ng ph\u00e1p ch\u1ee9 ng minh b\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c ,m\u1ed7 i ph\u01b0 \u01a1 ng ph\u00e1p
l\u1ea1 i c\u00f3 nh\u1eef ng v\u1ebb \u0111\u1eb9 p v\u00e0 s\u1ef1 \u0111\u1ed9 c \u0111\u00e1o ri\u00eang .Ngay c\u1ea3 khi \u00e1p d\u1ee5 ng c\u00f9ng m\u1ed9 t ph\u01b0 \u01a1 ng
ph\u00e1p th\u00ec c\u00e1i hay c\u1ee7 ab\u00e0i to\u00e1n l\u1ea1 i ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9 c v\u00e0o k\u0129 thu\u1ead t linh hoat c\u1ee7 a t\u1eeb ng ng\u01b0 \u1edd i
s\u1eed d\u1ee5 ng. Do v\u1ead y , kh\u00f3 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 n\u00f3i r\u1eb1 ng m\u1ed9 t ph\u01b0 \u01a1 ng ph\u00e1p ch\u1ee9 ng minh b\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng
th\u1ee9 c n\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3 \u0111\u0103 chi\u1ebf m v\u1ecb tr\u00ed \u0111\u1ed9 c t\u00f4n trong to\u00e1n h\u1ecd c .

Nh\u01b0 ng khi n\u00f3i v\u1ec1 nh\u1eef ng b\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c c\u01a1 b\u1ea3 n ,ch\u00fang ta ph\u1ea3 inh\u1eaf c t\u1edb i b\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c C\u00f4 si . \u0110\u00e2y l\u00e0 b\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c v\u00f4 c\u00f9ng quan tr\u1ecd ng v\u00e0r\u1ea5 t thi\u1ebf tth\u1ef1 c trong ch\u01b0 \u01a1 ng tr\u00ecnh To\u00e1n h\u1ecd c ph\u1ed5 th\u00f4ng.

B\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c C\u00f4 si\u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c \u00e1p d\u1ee5 ng \u0111\u1ec3 ch\u1ee9 ng minh nhi\u1ec1 u b\u00e0i to\u00e1n ,t\u1eeb \u0111\u01a1 n gi\u1ea3 n
\u0111\u1ebf n ph\u1ee9 c t\u1ea1 p . C\u00e1c em h\u1ecd c sinh Trung h\u1ecd c c\u01a1 s\u1edf c\u0169 ng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 hi\u1ec3 u v\u00e0
v\u1ead n d\u1ee5 ng v\u00e0o c\u00e1c b\u00e0i to\u00e1n hai bi\u1ebf n .Nh\u01b0 ng , c\u0169 ng c\u00f3 nh\u1eef ng b\u00e0i to\u00e1n tr\u1edf th\u00e0nh
nh\u1eef ng th\u00e1ch th\u1ee9 c l\u1edb n trong gi\u1edb i chuy\u00ean m\u00f4n.

Trong khu\u00f4n kh\u1ed5 c\u1ee7 a b\u00e0i t\u1eadp n\u00e0y,em kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 tham v\u1ecd ng tr\u00ecnh b\u00e0y t\u1ea5 t c\u1ea3 nh\u1eef ng v\u1ea5 n \u0111\u1ec1 li\u00ean quan t\u1edb i b\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c C\u00f4 si, ch\u1ec9 xin \u0111\u01b0 a ra m\u1ed9 t s\u1ed1 c\u00e1ch ch\u1ee9 ng minh v\u00e0 nh\u1eef ng b\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c suy r\u1ed9 ng c\u1ee7 a n\u00f3 .

Hi v\u1ecd ng v\u1ed1 n ki\u1ebf n th\u1ee9 c nh\u1ecf b\u00e9 n\u00e0y s\u1ebd \u0111em l\u1ea1 i ch\u00fat ki\u1ebf n th\u1ee9 c b\u1ed5 \u00edch cho c\u00e1c b\u1ea1 n
trong l\u1edb p ,nh\u1ea5 t l\u00e0 trong th\u1edd i \u0111i\u1ec3 m ch\u00fang ta s\u1eaf p xu\u1ed1 ng tr\u01b0 \u1edd ng ph\u1ed5 th\u00f4ng th\u1ef1 c
t\u1ead p.

Em xin ch\u00e2n th\u00e0nh c\u1ea3 m \u01a1 n Ph\u00f3 gi\u00e1o s\u01b0 ,Ti\u1ebf n s\u0129 Nguy\u1ec5 n Minh Tu\u1ea5 n \u0111\u00e3
gi\u1ea3 ng d\u1ea1 y nhi\u1ec7 t t\u00ecnh cho ch\u00fang em v\u1ec1 chuy\u00ean \u0111\u1ec1 B\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c ,gi\u00fap em
h\u1ecd c h\u1ecf i th\u00eam nhi\u1ec1 u ki\u1ebf n th\u1ee9 c v\u00e0 t\u1ef1 tin ho\u00e0n th\u00e0nh b\u00e0i t\u1eadp n\u00e0y .

Chuy\u00ean\u0111\u1ec1 B\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c
2
PH\u1ea6 NN\u1ed8 IDUNG
\u00a71. B\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c C\u00f4si.
Trong m\u1ee5 cn\u00e0y ch\u00fang ta gi\u1edb i thi\u1ec7 u b\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c C\u00f4si v\u00e0 m\u1ed9 t s\u1ed1 v\u00ed d\u1ee5
minh h\u1ecd a.
Tr\u01b0 \u1edb c h\u1ebf t ch\u00fang ta x\u00e9t tr\u01b0 \u1edd ng h\u1ee3 p \u0111\u01a1 n gi\u1ea3 n
2
\ue004
n
1. V\u1edb i
R
b
a\ue00a
,
:
ab
b
a
\ue009
\ue0012
2
2
.
Gi\u1ea3 i.
ab
b
a
\ue009
\ue0012
2
2
0
)
(
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
\ue009
\ue002
\ue00c
\ue009
\ue002
\ue001
\ue00c
\ue009
\ue001
\ue00c
b
a
ab
b
a
ab
b
a
.(\u0110\u00fang).
D\u1ea5 u \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c x\u1ea3 y ra khi v\u00e0 ch\u1ec9 khi
b
a\ue004
2. V\u1edb i
ab
b
a
b
a
\ue009
\ue001
\ue009
2
:
0
,
.
Gi\u1ea3i
.
0
)
(
2
)
(
)
(
2
2
2
2
\ue009
\ue002
\ue00c
\ue009
\ue001
\ue00c
\ue009
\ue001
b
a
ab
b
a
ab
b
a
(\u0110\u00fang).
D\u1ea5 u \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c x\u1ea3 y ra khi v\u00e0 ch\u1ec9 khi
\ue00c
\ue004b
a
b
a\ue004.
V\u00ed d\u1ee5 1.V\u1edb i
0
,
,\ue009
c
b
a
, ch\u1ee9 ng minh r\u1eb1 ng
3
3
abc
c
b
a
\ue009
\ue001
\ue001
(I.1.1)
Gi\u1ea3i
(I.1.1)
3
3
3
4
3
abc
abc
c
b
a
abc
c
b
a
\ue009
\ue001
\ue001
\ue001
\ue00c
\ue009
\ue001
\ue001
\ue00c
Ta c\u00f3
3
3
2
2
abc
c
ab
abc
c
b
a
\ue001
\ue009
\ue001
\ue001
\ue001
3
2
2
2
bac
ab
\ue009
3
4abc
\ue004
.
D\u1ea5 u \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c x\u1ea3 y ra khi v\u00e0 ch\u1ec9 khi
Chuy\u00ean\u0111\u1ec1 B\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c
3
\ue018\ue017\ue018\ue016\ue015
3
3
2
2
abc
c
ababc
c
b
a
\ue004
\ue004\ue004
c
b
a
\ue004
\ue004
\ue00c
.
T\u1eeb b\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c (I.1.1) ta thu \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c c\u00e1c b\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c sau :
V\u1edb i
0
,
,\ue009
c
b
a
, ta c\u00f3:
a)
abc
c
b
a
\ue009
\ue001
\ue001
3
)
3
(
.
b)
abc
c
b
a
\ue009
\ue001
\ue001
3
3
3
3
.
V\u00ed d\u1ee5 2.V\u1edb i
n
a
a
a
,...,
,2
1
l\u00e0 c\u00e1c s\u1ed1 th\u1ef1 c kh\u00f4ng \u00e2m, ch\u1ee9 ng minh r\u1eb1 ng
n
n
i
i
n
i
i
a
a
n
1
1
1
)
(
1
\ue00b
\ue00e
\ue004
\ue004
\ue009
(I.1.2)
Trong \u0111\u00f3\ue00e\ue004
\ue001
\ue001
\ue001
\ue004
n
i
n
i
a
a
a
a
1
2
1
...n
n
i
i
a
a
a
a
.....
.2
1
1
\ue004
\ue00b\ue004
Gi\u1ea3i
C\u00e1ch 1. (D\u00f9ng ph\u01b0 \u01a1 ng ph\u00e1p quy n\u1ea1 p)
2
,
1
\ue004
n
. (I.1.2) hi\u1ec3 n nhi\u00ean \u0111\u00fang.
Gi\u1ea3 s\u1eed (I.1.2) \u0111\u00fang v\u1edb i
)
2
(\ue009
\ue004k
k
n
. Ta ch\u1ee9 ng minh b\u1ea5 t \u0111\u1eb3 ng th\u1ee9 c \u0111\u00fang v\u1edb i
1
\ue001
\ue004k
n
.
Ta c\u00f3
1
)
1
(
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
\ue001
\ue001
\ue004
\ue001
\ue004
\ue001
\ue004
\ue001
\ue004
\ue001
\ue00e
\ue00e
k
a
a
k
k
a
k
S
k
k
i
i
ki
i
k
Theo gi\u1ea3 thi\u1ebf t quy n\u1ea1 p thu \u0111\u01b0 \u1ee3 c
1
)
(
1
1
1
1
\ue001
\ue001
\ue009
\ue001
\ue004
\ue001
\ue00b
k
a
a
k
S
k
k
k
i
i
k

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