Topics for Learning Objectives
1.The supreme present of militarism, "arms race", in this period of time gave allcountries great reason to feel the heavy weight of an oncoming war. Great Britain andGermany were distrustful of one another and attempted to keep their military might as powerful as possible. This led to an arms race, which made the impending war seeminevitable. The greatest problem with this was that there was a fear that "some chief of staff, in order to maintain the schedule on his 'timetable', might force an order of mobilization and thus precipitate war. On June 28, 1914, the Black Hand, a Bosnianrevolutionary, assassinated the heir to the Austrian throne, Archduke FrancisFerdinand. As a form of retaliation, Austria decided to end the South Slav separatism,and issued an ultimatum: Austrian officials must be allowed to collaborate in theinvestigation and punishment of the assassinators. Austria, with the support of Germany, then declared war against the Serbs, since they had refused the ultimatum. Nationalist feelings were strong in both Germany and France. Germans were proud of their new empire’s military power and industrial leadership. France longed to regainits position as Europe’s leading power. The French were especially bitter about their 1871 defeat in the Franco-Prussian War and the German occupation of the border provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. Patriotic French citizens yearned for revengeagainst Germany and to recover the “lost provinces2.
Battle of Marne
- began the use of trenches. The French stopped the Germaninvasion. Prevented fall of Paris
Battle of Somme
Over 1 million lives lost. 1,400,000 casualties. Demoralized bothsides. 1
use of flamethrower.
Battle of Verdun-
Allies drew Germans away from Verdun. . 1
use of tanks. Tacticsmore advanced.
Battle of St Mihiel-
First battle using exclusively American troops with Americancommanders.
Allies defeat the Central Powers.3.The growing demand for munitions, men and machinery forced governments tointervene more and more in the management of the economy and the lives of thecitizens. Early on, both sides set up systems to recruit, arm, transport, and supplyarmies that numbered in the millions. All of those nations, except for Britain, set up a