Method for the Determination of Residual Stress
“Specification for Polyethylene Pipes for Sewer Lining (Non Pressure Applications)” and W.I.S 4.32.09 “Specification for Black Polyethylene Pressure Pipes for Portable Water above Ground or Sewerage”. By J.S Hornsey VSR(Africa)cc
The target set is to specify that pipe does not distort significantly at its cut ends (barrel) andthat remains stable when machined. The cause of both these distortions is the residualstresses induced during normal manufacture by the vacuum process. These stresses arebalanced within the wall and the pipe ring structure.If the pipe is produced with the residual stresses balanced just in the wall of the pipe, or thepipe is annealed, the effects of barreling and distortion during cutting and machining arereduced.To achieve this only pipe complying with the following simplified test is used for jointmanufacture:
A length of pipe equal to the outside diameter is cut and a longitudinal section of pipewidth equal to 0.15D is removed from the sample.The cut section is then allowed to stand for one hour at the end of this period the endsof the cut must not have touched.
(A more thorough test is given in Appendix K of W.I.S 4.32.09)
Joints are machined to a tolerance of 0.2mmAllowing for the variation in wall thickness of PE pipes the target joint lip is 0.7% x OD
Appendix K – Method for the Determination of Residual Stress
K 1 Test Pieces
Cut adjacent sections of pipe of length equal to the outside diameter immediately after extrusion andmaintain them at 23 ± 2ºc laying on their sides.Mark each one in line with one of the marking strips.
K 2 ProcedureK 2.1
Recommended preliminary experiment to establish optimum size of pipe section to be removedThe day following production (but less than 23 hours elapsed time), by sawing longitudinally in thevicinity of the marked line, remove a section of pipe (from one or more test pieces) covering an arc of between 30º and 60º. Lay the test piece(s) on its side and observe the closure of the gap in the pipe ringfor 60 minutes. If the ring is near to closing completely within this period, remove a further segment.From this experiment, estimate the amount of material which would be required to be removed toallow the closure of the gap to 8mm after 60 minutes.