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unit-II transformers

unit-II transformers

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Published by: c.naresh9727 on Apr 20, 2009
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05/11/2014

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Unit II - TRANSFORMERS
1.
State the principle of working of a transformer?
Transformer consists of two inductive coils which are electrically separated butmagnetically linked through a path of low reluctance. The two coils possess high mutualinductance. If one coil connected to a source of alternating voltage, an alternating flux isset up in the laminated core, most of which linked with the other coil in which it producesmutually induced emf. If the second coil is closed current flows in it and so electricalenergy is transferred from the first coil to the second coil.
2.
List the types of transformers based on construction:
Core type transformer 
Shell type transformer 
3.
State why the transformer core is made of magnetic materials?
To provide a continuous magnetic path with the minimum air gap.
4..
Define transformation ratio ?
Transformation ratio is defined as the ratio of number of turns in the secondarywinding to number of turns in primary winding .K= N
2
/N
1
= E
2
/E
1
Types :Step up transformer Step down transformer 
5..
Define voltage regulation of a transformer:
The change is secondary terminal voltage from no load condition to full loadcondition is known as voltage regulation
6
..State the methods of reducing leakage flux:
To minimize the leakage flux, transformer core is sectionalized and byinterleaving the primary and secondary windings.
7..
List the various losses in a transformer and state the condition formaximum efficiency:
Core lossCopper lossCondition for maximum efficiency:Iron loss = copper loss
8..
Define all-day efficiency of a transformer?
All day efficiency is defined as the ratio of output in Kwh to input in Kwhcalculated for 24 hours
 
9
.
 
Define the purpose of breather used in a transformer?
Complete air tight chambers provided to permit the oil inside the tank expand andcontract as temperature increases or decreases
10..
State the test to be conducted to determine the efficiency of atransformer
OC test –iron lossesSC test – copper losses
11..
State the various types of a transformers depending on its voltagetransformation ratio:
Step-up transformer Step- down transformer 
12.
Write the emf equation of a transformer and explain the terms used:
E=4.44
φ
m
f N (volts)
13 .
why Core loss of a transformer practically constant ?
Since the core flux is practically constant for all loads the core loss is practically same for all loads.14.
What is the main difference between core type and shell typetransformers ?
Core type:The coils wound are form woundand are cylindrical type.Woundin helical layers insulated from each other by paper,cloth,mica.Used for low voltage transformers.Windings surround a considerable part of thecore.Shell type:coils are form wound but are multi layer disc type,insulated fromeach other by paper.Transformer core consists of laminations arrangedin groups which radiate out from the centre.Used for high voltagetransformers.Core surrounds a considerable portion of the winding.15.
Why the rating of the transformers is in KVA ?
Opper loss of transformer depends on current and iron loss on voltage.Totalloss depends on volt-ampere and not on phase angle.16.
In what way the iron losses can be minimised.
Laminating the core,laminations being insulated from each other by varnish.
 
17.
What are the two components of no load input current of atransformer
(i)Active or working or iron loss plus small quantity of primary culoss(ii)Quadrature with v1 known as magnetising component because of function to sustain the alternating flux in the core. 18.
What are the different kinds of transformers
Power transformer ,distribution transformer ,auto transformer 19.
What is the need for conducting O.C and S.C tests in atransformer.?
For the calculation of Iron loss and copper losses so as to determine theefficiency of the transformer.20.
Define the equivalent circuit of a transformer?
Pictorial representation of the transformer,simplification can be done bytransferring resistances,reactances,load,no load branch for easy calculation.21.
Define an Ideal transformer ?
A perfect transformer considered to have no loss and having max efficiencywhich is practically not possible.22.
Explain how the flux in the core is practically maintained constant?
The secondary current sets up its own flux which is in opposition to mainflux called demagnetising amp turns.For a moment v1 gains E1 and hencemore current to flow in primary.Additional current called i2’ known as loadcomponent of primary current.Magnetic effects of secondary current i2 areimmediately neutralized by additional primary current i2’ hence the net fluxis constant.23.
Define mutual induction
Consists of two inductive coils electrically separated but magneticallylinked.If one coil is connected to the source alternating flux is set up whichlinks the other coil also which produces mutually induced emf.If the secondcoil circuit id closed a current flows in it and so electrical energy istransferred from the first coil to second coil.

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