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The History of Oracle

The History of Oracle

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this is the history of oracle
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Published by: Patrick Paul S. Alvarado on May 29, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The History of Oracle
Oracle Tips by Paulo Ferreira Portugal
April 8, 2009
Oracle has a 3 decade history, outlasting many of its predecessors. This brief summary traces theevolution of Oracle from its initial inception to its current status as theworld moist flexible androbust database management system.Founded in August 1977 by Larry Ellison, Bob Miner, Ed Oates and Bruce Scott, Oracle wasinitially named after "Project Oracle" a project for one of their clients, the C.I.A, and the companythatdeveloped Oracle was dubbed "Systems Development Labs", or SDL. Although they may nothave realized it at the time, these four men would change the history of database managementforever.In 1978 SDL was renamed Relational Software Inc (RSI) to markettheir new database.
1979-Oracle release 2
The first commercial RDBMS was built using PDP-11 assembler language. Although they createda commercial version of RDBMS in 1977, it wasn't available for sale until 1979 with the launch of Oracle version 2. The company decided against starting with version 1 because they were afraidthat the term "version 1" might be viewed negatively in the marketplace. USA Air Force and thenCIA were the first customers to use Oracle 2.In 1982 there was another change of the company’s name, from RSI to Oracle SystemsCorporation so as to match its popular database name. The current company name comes from aCIA project that Larry Ellison had previously worked on code named “Oracle”.
1983-Oracle release 3
The Oracle version 3 was developed in 1983. This version was assembled using C programminglanguage and could run in mainframes, minicomputers, and PCsor any hardware with a Ccompiler. It supported the execution of SQL statements and transactions. This version alsoincluded new options of pre-join data to increase Oracle optimization.
1984-Oracle release 4
Despite the advances introduced in version 3, demand was so great that Oracle was compelled toimprove the software even further with the release of version 4in 1984. Oracle version 4 includedsupport for reading consistency, which made it much faster than any previous version. Oracleversion 4 also brought us the introduction of the export/import utilities and the report writer, whichallows one the ability to create a report based on a query.
1985-Oracle release 5
With the introduction of version 5 in 1985, Oracle addressed the increasing use of the internet inbusiness computing. This version was equipped with the capability to connect clients’ softwarethrough a network to a database server. The Clustering Technology was introduced in this versionas well and Oracle became the pioneer using this new conceptwhich would later be known asOracle Real Application Cluster in version 9i. Oracle version 5added some new security featuressuch as auditing, which would help determine who and when someone accessed the database.Oracle version 5.1 was launched in 1986 and allowed for supporting distributed queries. Later thatsame year Oracle releasedSQL*Plus, a tool that offers ad hoc data access and report writing.1986 also brought the release of SQL*Forms, an application generator and runtime system withfacilities for simple application deployment.
1988-Oracle release 6
The PL/SQL language came with Oracle version 6 in 1988. This version provided a host of newfeatures including the support of OLTP high-speed systems, hot backup capability and row levellockingwhich locks only the row or rows being used during a writing operation, rather thanlocking an entire table. Prior to the hot backup feature, database administrators were required toshut down the database to back it up. Once the hot backup feature was introduced, DBA’s coulddo a backup while the database was still online.OracleParallel Server was introduced in Oracle version 6.2 and was used with DEC VAX Cluster.This new feature provided high availability because more than one node (server) could access thedata in database. With the increased availability this feature also accelerated the performance of the system that was sharing users’ connections between nodes.
1992-Oracle release 7
1992 was a memorable year for Oracle. The company announced Oracle version 7, which was theculmination of four years of hard work and twoyears of customer testing before release to market.This version of Oracle provided a vast array of new features and capabilities in areas such assecurity, administration, development, and performance. Oracle 7 also addressed securityconcerns by providing full control of who, when, and what users were doing in the database.Version 7 also allowed us to monitor every command, the use of privileges and the user’s accessto a particular item. With Oracle 7 users could use stored procedures and had triggers to enforcebusiness-rules. Roles were created at this version to make the security maintenance easier for users and privileges. The two-phase commit was added to support distributed transactions.Oracle7 Release 7.1 introduced some good new capabilitiesfor database administrators, such asparallel recovery and read-only tablespaces. For the application developments, Oracle inserted the
dynamic SQL, user-defined SQL functions and multiple same-type triggers. The first 64-bit DBMSwas introduced within this version as well as the VLM (Very Large Memory) option. The featureOracle Parallel Query could make some complex queries run 5 to 20 times faster.In 1996 Oracle 7.3 was shipped, offering customers the ability to manage all kinds of data types;including video, color images, sounds and spatial data. 1996 also brought the release of Oracle'sfirst biometric authentication for a commercially available database. This technology could analyzehuman characteristics, both physical and behavioral, for purposes of authentication.
1997-Oracle release 8
The Oracle 8 Database was launched in 1997 and was designed to work with Oracle's networkcomputer (NC). This version supported Java, HTML and OLTP.
1998-Oracle release 8i
Just one year later Oracle released Oracle 8i which was the first database to support Webtechnologies such as Java and HTTP. In 2000 Oracle 8i Parallel Server was working with Linuxwhich eliminated costly downtime.
2001-Oracle release 9i
Oracle Real Application Cluster came withOracle 9i Database in 2001. This feature providessoftware for clustering and high availability in Oracle database environments. Supporting nativeXML was also a new feature of Oracle 9i and this was the first relational database to have thesecharacteristics. Version 9i release 2 enabled Oracle to integrate relational and multidimensionaldatabase. Despite the fact that hard disks were becoming cheaper, data was increasing veryquickly in databases and Oracle 9i came with a special technology named table compression thatreduced the size of tables by 3 to 10 times and increased the performance when accessingthose tables.
2003-Oracle release 10g
 Although Oracle 9i had only been in the market for two years, Oracle launched version 10g in2003.The release of 10g brought us the introduction to Grid Computing technology. Data centerscould now share hardware resources, thus lowering the cost of computing infrastructure. 10g wasalso the first Oracle version to support 64-bit on Linux. With Oracle Database 10g and Real Application Cluster it was now possible to move from very expensive SMP boxes and mainframesto an infrastructure that relies on low costs such as UNIX or Windows servers, which have highavailability, scalability and performance.Oracle has long strived to make their software products available through the internet; but thiseffort was only enhanced with the creation of the 10g Express Edition. With the introduction of the

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