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Table Of Contents

Water and Its Roles in Baked Products
Introduction
The composition and heat-related properties of water
Vapour pressure and relative humidity
Water hardness
Ionisation and solutions
The solubility of solids and their recrystallisation
Water of crystallisation
Vapour pressure of solutions
Osmotic pressure
Gases in a solution
Suspensions
Colloidal suspensions
Hydration
Water as a plasticiser
Surface tension and capillary action
Gels and emulsions
Water in bakery ingredients
Using water as a processing tool
Assessing water in baked products
Conclusions
References
Wheat flour properties
The formation of bread doughs
Optimum bread dough water levels
Wheat flour water absorption capacity and its determination
Water levels in rye bread doughs
Water in brews and sponges
Water and dough development
Dried gluten
Salt
Sugars
Enzymes
Non-wheat fibres
Other ingredients
Other factors affecting the level of water added to doughs
Dough and water temperatures
Water, dough rheology and moulding
The formation of cake batters
Dissolution and hydration of ingredients in cake batters
Water levels in cake batters
Flour properties and water levels in cake batters
Gases in cake batters
Wafer and other batters
Control of batter temperatures
Batter viscosity and its measurement
Formation and processing of biscuit and cookie doughs
Formation and processing of short pastry doughs
Formation and processing of laminated doughs
Biscuit dough and paste rheological properties
Compression–extrusion tests
Recording dough mixers
Load–extension tests
Fundamental tests
Choux pastries
Bakery products not based on flour
Baked products
Fillings
Toppings and icings
Marshmallow
Jams and jellies
Water in retarded unbaked doughs
Bread and fermented products
Cakes
Laminated products
Biscuits and pastries
Choux pastry
Doughnuts
Wafers
Applications of steam during baking
Bread
Part-baked breads
Rye breads
Chinese steamed breads
Surface treatments with water and water-based solutions
Water and microwave baking
The management of water losses during baking and cooling
Water in frozen bakery products
Bread and fermented goods
Pastries and laminated products
Biscuits and cookies
Loss of product freshness (staling)
Changes in bread character during storage
Changes in the character of cakes, biscuits and pastries
Checking in biscuits and crackers
Water and staling in bread
Staling in cakes
Unbaked bread doughs
Unbaked cake batters
Unbaked pastries
Composite products
The impact of packaging on texture
The link between moisture content and water activity
Water activity and microbial spoilage
Water activity and the mould-free shelf-life of a product
Effects of packaging
Water activity and product rancidity
The influence of ingredients on water activity
Sucrose equivalence
Mechanisms of moisture migration
Diffusion
Vapour phase transfer
Syneresis
Fruited cakes and breads
Cream cakes
Sugar-based toppings
Savoury pastry products
Sweetened pastry products
Using stabilisers to control moisture migration
Moisture migration in composite biscuit products
The application of moisture barriers
Use of packaging materials
Moisture migration and the product shelf-life
Method 1
Method 2
Method 3
Measuring moisture content
Oven drying methods
Air oven drying
Vacuum oven drying
Electrical methods
Electronic moisture meters
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Near infrared
IR – direct heating
Other techniques for moisture measurement
Methods for the calculation of moisture content
Methods for the measurement of water activity
Psychrometry
Indicator salts
Mechanical methods
Dew point
Electric and coulometric methods
Spectroscopic methods
Quartz crystal oscillation
Thermal conductivity gas analysis
Weight change method
Preparing samples for ERH measurement
Swiss rolls
Fruit cakes and Christmas puddings
Filled products
Instrumental measurement of ERH
Methods of calculating water activity and ERH
The se method
Determining se data values
Calculating ERH using the se method
Sucrose concentration method
Other methods for calculating water activity
Software to calculate water activity
ERH CALCTM
Strategies for Extending Bakery Product Shelf-Life
Manipulating water activity using ingredients
Storage temperature
Effects of pH
Extending the product shelf-life by adjusting water content
Changing salt levels
Effects of sugars on the cake shelf-life
Sucrose
Other sugars
Using humectants
Using preservatives
Flour confectionery products
Fermented products
Biscuit products
Reducing moisture migration
Extending shelf-life by other means
Ethanol surface spraying
Modified atmosphere packaging
Intelligent packaging
Packaging before baking
Packaging directly after baking
IR and UV irradiation, and microwave radiation
Index
P. 1
Bakery Food Manufacture and Quality: Water Control and Effects

Bakery Food Manufacture and Quality: Water Control and Effects

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Published by Wiley
Water is the major contributor to the eating and keeping qualities and structure of baked products. Its management and control during preparation, processing, baking, cooling and storage is essential for the optimisation of product quality. This successful and highly practical volume describes in detail the role and control of water in the formation of cake batters, bread, pastry and biscuit doughs, their subsequent processing and the baked product.

Now in a fully revised and updated second edition, the book has been expanded and developed through the inclusion of new information and references related to the formation and processing of batters and dough into baked products. The new edition includes a selection of case studies based on practical experience in the manufacture and optimisation of baked products. Each case study, illustrated as appropriate, considers the various roles that water may play in different manufacturing contexts. The book is aimed at food scientists and technologists in bakery companies; ingredient suppliers; flour millers; researchers and students in academic food science departments.

Water is the major contributor to the eating and keeping qualities and structure of baked products. Its management and control during preparation, processing, baking, cooling and storage is essential for the optimisation of product quality. This successful and highly practical volume describes in detail the role and control of water in the formation of cake batters, bread, pastry and biscuit doughs, their subsequent processing and the baked product.

Now in a fully revised and updated second edition, the book has been expanded and developed through the inclusion of new information and references related to the formation and processing of batters and dough into baked products. The new edition includes a selection of case studies based on practical experience in the manufacture and optimisation of baked products. Each case study, illustrated as appropriate, considers the various roles that water may play in different manufacturing contexts. The book is aimed at food scientists and technologists in bakery companies; ingredient suppliers; flour millers; researchers and students in academic food science departments.

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Publish date: Mar 2000
Added to Scribd: May 29, 2013
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9781444301090
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