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Biology Lab Vocabulary Review

Biology Lab Vocabulary Review

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Published by prehealthhelp
biology vocabulary plants fungi protists
biology vocabulary plants fungi protists

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Published by: prehealthhelp on May 31, 2013
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Biology 1001 LabSection TF9CPractical Review Sheet
Scientific methods- scientific investigation share some common elements and proceduresIndependent variables-the variable you have control over, what you can choose and
manipulate
.Dependent variables-the end impact, what is observed in response to the experimental conditions.Controlled variables-a variable that is kept constantControl
 –
the independent variable is held at an established level, contain point its set on.
GraphsLine graph-
show changes in the quantity of the chosen variable and emphasize the rise and fall of thevalues over the rangeBar Graph-used for data that represent separate or discontinuous groups or nonnumerical categoriesMicroscopesType of microscopes- The Compound Light Microscope (two eyepieces), 2dThe Stereo Microscope- 2 lens, 3d viewParts of microscopes (function)
Cell division
Mitosis - Mitosis is the process by which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleusinto two identical sets, in two separate nucleiMeiosis - Meiosis is a two-part cell division process in organisms that sexually reproduce. Meiosisproduces gametes with one half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. There are two stages of meiosis: meiosis I and meiosis II. At the end of the meiotic process, four daughter cells are produced.Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis-
Mitosis
is a process of cell duplication, or reproduction, during which one cell gives rise to twogenetically identical daughter cells.
Meiosis,
on the other hand, is a division of a germ cell involving two fissions of the nucleus and givingrise to four gametes, or sex cells, each possessing half the number of chromosomes of the original cell.Independent assortment- genes for one trait are not inherited together with another trait.
Random
 
 
Law of segregation- 2 alleles coding for the same trait
separate
during gamete formationDrosophila-medium
Sexing the fly-
? Don’t remember
 
Zea mays-???
Phenotype
- observable characteristics
Genotype
- Genotype refers to the genetic traits in an organism.
Homozygous
-Having two identical alleles that code for the same trait
Heterozygous
- having two different alleles for a single trait
Monohybrid
-mating between individuals who have different alleles at one genetic locus of interest
Dihybrid-
a cross between F1 offspring (first-generation offspring) of two individuals that differ in twotraits of particular interest
Chi square
- determine if your null hypothesis (something you want to test if it is true or untrue) can beaccepted or rejected
Degree of freedom-
the number of values in the final calculation of a statistic that are free to varyFungi and protest- Protists are generally unicellular. Fungi are multicellular. Fungi are mainlysaprotrophic, while protists are not (they can be heterotrophic, autotrophic, parisitic and saprotrophic).They have different cell wall compositions (Fungi cell wall is made of chitin, protist ones aren't). I ampretty sure protists reproduce mainly asexually and fungi reproduce sexually by producing spores.
Diatoms
-important autotrophic protists found in plankton
Hyphae
- is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus
Mycelium-
the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae
Amoeba
- shapeless unicellular organisms.
Autotroph
- "self-feeding"
Heterotrophic
- An organism that cannot synthesize its own food and is dependent on complex organicsubstances for nutrition.
Paramecia
- In general, they feed on bacteria and other small cells, making them heterotrophs
Different types of Algae- Green
(desmids, spirogyra)
Brown
(dyctiota, ectocarpus)
 
Zygomycota
- is a phylum of fungi. The name comes from zygosporangia, where resistant sphericalspores are formed during sexual reproduction.
Pilobolus crystallinus
- It is unique in that it adheres its spores to vegetation, so as to be eaten by grazinganimals. It then passes through the animals' digestive systems and grows in their feces.
Ascomycota-
Its members are commonly known as the sac fungi. The defining feature of this fungalgroup is the "ascus". Asexual only.
Ascocarp-
the fruiting body (sporocarp) of an ascomycete fungus. It consists of very tightly interwovenhyphae and may contain millions of asci,
Ascospores-
An ascospore is a spore contained in an ascus or that was produced inside an ascus
Asci
- an ascus (plural asci; from Greek
ἀσκός "skin bag") is the sexual spore
-bearing cell produced inascomycete fungi.
Basidiomycota-
Basically, Basidiomycota are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae, and specializedclub-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external meiospores. Sexually reproducing
Basdiocarp
- is the sporocarp of a basidiomycete, the multicellular structure on which the spore-producing hymenium is borne.
Stipe
- stem or stalk-like feature supporting the cap of a mushroomGills- under the cap of some mushroom species, used by the mushrooms as a means of spore dispersal,and are important for species identification
Pileus
- cap of a mushroom
Lichens
: any of numerous complex plantlike organisms made up of an alga and a fungus growing insymbiotic association on a solid surface (as a rock)
Foliose
- a lichen whose thallus is flat and leafy
Crustose-
a lichen whose thallus is thin, crusty, and closely adherent to or embedded in the surface onwhich it grows.
Fruticose
- having a shrubby often branched thallus that grows perpendicular to the substrat
Plant diversity I
Non vascular plants
- plants without a vascular system (xylem and phloem). Although non-vascularplants lack these particular tissues, a number of non-vascular plants possess tissues specialized forinternal transport of water.
Xylum-
function is to transport water,

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