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exp 2013 10.docx

exp 2013 10.docx

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07/15/2014

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PURPOSE
The aims of this experiment are to measure the amplitude of forced rotational oscillationsas function of exciter frequency for various damping constants, to determine the naturalfrequency of the oscillator, and to investigate the phase shift between the exciter and theoscillator.
THEORY
A wave is a disturbance that travels from one location to another, and is describedby a wave function that is a function of both space and time. If the wave function wassine function then the wave would be exressed byWhere
A
is the amplitude of the wave, w is the angular frequency of the wave and
is the wave number. The negative sign is used for a wave traveling in the positive
x
direction and the positive sign is used for a wave traveling in the negative
x
direction.When an object, like a ball, is thrown against a rigid wall it bounces back. This"reflection" of the object can be analyzed in terms of momentum and energyconservation. If the collision between ball and wall is perfectly elastic, then all theincident energy and momentum is reflected, and the ball bounces back with the samespeed. If the collision is inelastic, then the wall (or ball) absorbs some of the incident energy and momentum and the ball does not bounce back with the same speed.Waves also carry energy and momentum, and whenever a wave encounters anobstacle, they are reflected by the obstacle. This reflection of waves is responsible forechoes, radar detectors, and for allowing standing waves which are so important tosound production in musical instruments.The most important part of this definition is that a wave is a disturbance orvariation which travels through a medium. The medium through which the wave travelsmay experience some local oscillations as the wave passes, but the particles in themedium to not travel with the wave. The disturbance may take any of a number of shapes, from a finite width pulse to an infinitely long sine wave.The aim of the experiment is to explicitly confirm the relationshipbetween the wavelen
gth λ, the frequency
f
and the phase velocity
V.
A stopclock isused to measure the time
required for any wave phase to travel a given distance
s
for different wavelengths; these values are then used to calculate the phase velocity
λ


The wavelength is then “frozen” using the built
-in brake, to permit period measured using the stopclock.


When the recommended experiment configuration is used, it is possible todemonstrate all significant phenomena pertaining to the propagation of lineartransversal waves. In particular, these include the excitation of standing waves bymeans of reflection at a fixed or loose end.