THE THERMODYNAMICAL THEORY OF ELASTO-VISCOPLASTICITY...
with the physical interpretation that
deﬁnesthe volume fraction porosity, the residual stress tensor (the back stress)
– the mean grain diameter. The equivalent inelastic deformation
describes thedissipation eﬀects generated by viscoplastic ﬂow phenomena, the microdamagetensor
takes into account the anisotropic intrinsic microdamage mechanisms oninternal dissipation, the back stress tensor
aims at the description of dissipationeﬀects caused by the kinematic hardening, and
describes the dynamic graingrowth during intensive deformation process.
2. Experimental observations
2.1. The behaviour of nanocrystalline metals under quasistatic loadings
Grain size is known to have a signiﬁcant eﬀect on the mechanical behaviourof materials. The yield stress for metals is increasing when the grain size isdecreasing.The compressive stress-strain curves for ultraﬁne-grained and nanocrystallineCu, Fe, Ni and Ti are shown in Fig. 2, cf.
. It is observed thatwork hardening saturates at a very low plastic strain. This is a strong predictorfor shear instability, since there are three key elements dictating shear localiza-tion: thermal softening, which favors shear localization, and strain-rate sensitiv-ity and work hardening, which oppose shear localization. For nanocrystalline
metals, the three eﬀects drive shear band formation, and it is indeed prevalent.
2. The compressive stress-strain curves for ultraﬁne-grained and nanocrystalline Cu, Fe,Ni and Ti (data from several sources), cf.