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## Table Of Contents

1.1 Pythagoras
1.1.1 Introduction to Pythagorean Ideas
1.1.2 Pythagorean Triples
1.2 Euclid
1.2.1 Introduction to Euclid
1.2.2 The Ideas of Euclid
1.3 Archimedes
1.3.1 The Genius of Archimedes
1.3.2 Archimedes’s Calculation of the Area of a Circle
2.1 The Context of the Paradox?
2.2 The Life of Zeno of Elea
2.3 Consideration of the Paradoxes
2.4 Decimal Notation and Limits
2.5 Inﬁnite Sums and Limits
2.7 Some Useful Notation
2.8 Concluding Remarks
3.1 Introduction to Hypatia
3.2 What is a Conic Section?
4.1 Introductory Remarks
4.2 The Development of Algebra
4.2.1 Al-Khowˆarizmˆı and the Basics of Algebra
4.2.2 The Life of Al-Khwarizmi
4.2.3 The Ideas of Al-Khwarizmi
4.2.4 Omar Khayyam and the Resolution of the Cubic
4.3 The Geometry of the Arabs
4.3.1 The Generalized Pythagorean Theorem
4.3.2 Inscribing a Square in an Isosceles Triangle
4.4 A Little Arab Number Theory
5.1 Introduction
5.2 The Story of Cardano
5.3 First-Order Equations
5.4 Rudiments of Second-Order Equations
5.5 Completing the Square
5.6 The Solution of a Quadratic Equation
5.7 The Cubic Equation
5.7.1 A Particular Equation
5.7.2 The General Case
5.8 Fourth Degree Equations and Beyond
5.8.1 The Brief and Tragic Lives of Abel and Galois
5.9 The Work of Abel and Galois in Context
6.0 Introductory Remarks
6.1 The Life of Ren´e Descartes
6.2 The Real Number Line
6.3 The Cartesian Plane
6.5 Coordinates in Three-Dimensional Space
Invention of Diﬀerential Calculus
7.1 The Life of Fermat
7.2 Fermat’s Method
7.4 Fermat’s Lemma and Maximum/Minimum Problems
8.1 A New Number System
8.2 Progenitors of the Complex Number System
8.2.1 Cardano
8.2.2 Euler
8.2.3 Argand
8.2.4 Cauchy
8.2.5 Riemann
8.3 Complex Number Basics
8.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
8.5 Finding the Roots of a Polynomial
9.1 Birth of an Inspired and Unlikely Child
9.2 Sophie Germain’s Work on Fermat’s Problem
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Why Do We Need the Real Numbers?
10.3 How to Construct the Real Numbers
10.4 Properties of the Real Number System
10.4.1 Bounded Sequences
10.4.2 Maxima and Minima
10.4.3 The Intermediate Value Property
The Prime Numbers
11.1 The Sieve of Eratosthenes
11.2 The Inﬁnitude of the Primes
11.3 More Prime Thoughts
Dirichlet and How to Count
12.1 The Life of Dirichlet
12.2 The Pigeonhole Principle
12.3 Other Types of Counting
13.0 Introduction
13.1 How to Measure the Length of a Curve
13.2 Riemann’s Method for Measuring Arc Length
13.3 The Hyperbolic Disc
14.1 Introductory Remarks
14.2 What is a Number?
14.2.1 An Uncountable Set
14.2.2 Countable and Uncountable
14.3 The Existence of Transcendental Numbers
The Number Systems
15.1 The Natural Numbers
15.1.1 Introductory Remarks
15.1.2 Construction of the Natural Numbers
15.1.3 Axiomatic Treatment of the Natural Numbers
15.2 The Integers
15.2.1 Lack of Closure in the Natural Numbers
15.2.2 The Integers as a Set of Equivalence Classes
15.2.3 Examples of Integer Arithmetic
15.2.4 Arithmetic Properties of the Integers
15.3 The Rational Numbers
15.3.1 Lack of Closure in the Integers
15.3.3 Examples of Rational Arithmetic
15.3.4 Subtraction and Division of Rational Numbers
15.4 The Real Numbers
15.4.1 Lack of Closure in the Rational Numbers
15.4.2 Axiomatic Treatment of the Real Numbers
15.5 The Complex Numbers
15.5.1 Intuitive View of the Complex Numbers
15.5.2 Deﬁnition of the Complex Numbers
15.5.3 The Distinguished Complex Numbers 1 and i
15.5.4 Algebraic Closure of the Complex Numbers
Henri Poincar´e, Child Prodigy
16.1 Introductory Remarks
16.2 Rubber Sheet Geometry
16.3 The Idea of Homotopy
16.4 The Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem
16.5 The Generalized Ham Sandwich Theorem
16.5.1 Classical Ham Sandwiches
16.5.2 Generalized Ham Sandwiches
17.1 The Life of Sonya Kovalevskaya
17.2 The Scientiﬁc Work of Sonya Kovalevskaya
17.2.1 Partial Diﬀerential Equations
17.2.2 A Few Words About Power Series
17.2.4 The Rings of Saturn
17.2.5 The Lam´e Equations
17.2.6 Bruns’s Theorem
17.3 Afterward on Sonya Kovalevskaya
18.1 The Life of Emmy Noether
18.2 Emmy Noether and Abstract Algebra: Groups
18.3 Emmy Noether and Abstract Algebra: Rings
18.3.1 The Idea of an Ideal
Methods of Proof
19.1.3 Axioms
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An Episodic History of Mathematics

# An Episodic History of Mathematics

Ratings: (0)|Views: 377|Likes:
Published by Hyunwoo Choi

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Published by: Hyunwoo Choi on Jun 02, 2013
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