Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Add note
Save to My Library
Sync to mobile
Look up keyword or section
Like this
1Activity
×
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
salidau2

salidau2

Ratings: (0)|Views: 73|Likes:
Published by Jose Vargas

More info:

Published by: Jose Vargas on Jun 02, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, DOC, TXT or read online from Scribd
See More
See less

06/02/2013

pdf

text

original

 
II TEXTUAL REFERENCES
47
103.
K. L. Sutherland,
Austral. J. Chem.,
7,
319 (1954).
104.
N. N. Kochurova and A. I. Rusanov,
J. Colloid Interface Sci.,
81,
297 (1981).
105.
R. S. Hansen and T. C. Wallace, /.
Phys. Chem.,
63,
1085(1959).
106.
W. D. E. Thomas and D. J. Hall, /.
Colloid Interface Sci.,
51,
328 (1975).
107.
D. A. Netzel, G. Hoch, and T. I. Marx, /.
Colloid Sci.,
19,
774(1964).
108.
R. S. Hansen, /.
Phys. Chem.,
68,
2012 (1964).
109.
W. D. E. Thomas and L. Potter, /.
Colloid Interface Sci.,
50,
397 (1975).
110.
C. C. Addison and T. A. Elliott,
J. Chem. Soc,
1949,
2789.
111.
F. H. Garner and P. Mina,
Trans. Faraday Soc,
55,
1607(1959).
112.
 J. Van Havenbergh and P. Joos,
J. Colloid Interface Sci.,
95,
172 (1983).
113.
C. Hsu and R. E. Apfel,
J. Colloid Interface Sci.,
107,
467(1985).
114.
R. S. Hansen and J. Ahmad,
Progress in Surface and Membrane Science,
Vol.
4,
Academic Press,New York,
1971.
115.
H. Lofgren, R. D. Newman, L. E. Scriven, and H. T. Davis, /.
Colloid Interface Sci.,
98,
175 (1984).
116.
S. Hard and R. D. Newman, /.
Colloid Interface Sci.,
115,
73(1987).
117.
M. Sano, M. Kawaguchi, Y-L. Chen, R. J. Skarlupka, T.Chang, G. Zographi, and H. Yu,
Rev. Sci. Instr.,
57,
1158(1986).
118.
 J. C. Earnshaw and R. C. McGivern, /.
Phys. D: Appl. Phys.,
20,
82 (1987).
119.
V. B. Fainerman, R. Miller, and P. Joos,
Colloid Polym. Sci.,
272,
731 (1994).
120.
R. Miller, P. Joos, and V. B. Fainerman,
Prog. Colloid Polym.Sci.,
97,
188 (1994).
121.
V B. Fainerman, A. V. Makievski, and R. Miller,
Colloids Surfaces,
A75
(1993).
122.
 J. F. Padday and D. R. Russell,
J. Colloid Sci.,
15,
503(1960).
123.
D. G. LeGrand and G. L. Gaines, Jr., /.
Colloid Interface Sci.,
42,
181 (1973).
124.
 J. Kloubek,
Colloid Polymer Sci.,
253,
929 (1975).
 
CHAPTER III
 The Nature and Thermodynamics of Liquid InterfacesIt was made clear in Chapter II that the surface tension is a definite andaccurately measurable property of the interface between two liquidphases. Moreover, its value is very rapidly established in pure substancesof ordinary viscosity; dynamic methods indicate that a normal surfacetension is established within a millisecond and probably sooner [1]. In thischapter it is thus appropriate to discuss the thermodynamic basis forsurface tension and to develop equations for the surface tension of single-and multiple-component systems. We begin with thermodynamics andstructure of single-component interfaces and expand our discussion tosolutions in Sections III-4 and III-5.
1. One-Component Systems
 A. Surface Thermodynamic Quantities for a Pure Substance
Figure III-l depicts a hypothetical system consisting of some liquid thatfills a box having a sliding cover; the material of the cover is such that theinterfacial tension between it and the liquid is zero. If the cover is slidback so as to uncover an amount of surface
dJl 
, the work requiredto do so will be
 ydA.
This is reversible work atconstant pressure and temperature and thus gives theincrease in free energy of the system (see SectionXVII-12 for a more detailed discussion of thethermodynamics of surfaces).
 The total free energy of the system is then made up of the molar freeenergy times the total number of moles of the liquid plus
,
thesurface free energy per unit area, times the totalsurface area. Thus
Because this process is a reversible one, the heat associated with itgives the
surface entropy 
 
m
-1
ONE-COMPONENT SYSTEMS
where
S
s
 
is the surface entropy per square centimeter of surface. Because
(dG/dT)
P
= -S,
it follows thatOften, and as a good approximation,
 
and thesurface energy
 
are not distinguished, so Eq. III-6can be seen in the form
 The total surface energy
E"
generally is larger than thesurface free energy. It is frequently the moreinformative of the two quantities, or at least it is moreeasily related to molecular models.Other thermodynamic relationships are developedduring the course of this
or, in conjunction with Eq. III-l, 
 

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->