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Table Of Contents

3.2 Mild Wear and Transition to Severe Wear
3.2.1 Mild Wear
3.2.2 Transition to Severe Wear
3.3 Strain Rate Estimates and Bulk Surface Temperature
3.3.1 Strain Rate Response Maps
3.3.2 Bulk Surface Temperature
3.3.3 The Phenomenological Argument
3.3.4 Micrographic Observations
3.4 Summary
3.4.1 Homogeneous Deformation – Severe Wear
3.4.2 Homogeneous Deformation – Mild Wear
3.4.3 Inhomogeneous Deformation – Severe Wear
Acknowledgements
References
Boundary Lubricated Wear
Abstract
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Lubricated Wear Classification
4.3 Lubricated Wear Versus “Dry” Wear
4.4 Wear Measurement in Well-Lubricated Systems
4.5 Measurement Procedures
4.5.1 Run-In Process
4.5.2 General Performance Wear Test (GPT)
4.5.3 Enhanced Oxidation Wear Test (EOT)
4.5.4 Boundary Film Persistence Test (BFPT)
4.5.5 Case Study with GPT and BFPT
4.5.6 Boundary Film Failure Test (BFFT)
4.6 Wear Mechanisms Under Lubricated Conditions
4.7 Modeling of Lubricated Wear
4.7.1 Wear
4.7.2 Contact Area
4.7.3 Rheology
4.7.4 Film Thickness
4.7.5 Contact Stress
4.7.6 Flash Temperatures
4.8 Summary
Acknowledgments
Wear and Chemistry of Lubricants
5.1 Encountering Wear in Tribological Contacts
5.2 Lubricant Formulations – Drivers for Change
5.3 Tribochemistry and Wear
5.4 Antiwear Additive Technologies
5.4.1 Antiwear Technologies
5.4.2 ZDDP – Antiwear Mechanism
5.4.3 Interaction of ZDDP with Other Additives
5.4.4 New Antiwear Additive Technologies
5.5 Extreme Pressure Additives
5.6 Lubricating Non-Fe Materials
Surface Chemistry in Tribology
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Boundary Lubrication and Oiliness Additives
6.2.1 Introduction
6.2.2 Monolayers, Multilayers and Soaps
6.2.3 Viscous Near-Surface Layers
6.2.4 Boundary Lubrication in Natural Joints
6.2.5 Summary
6.3 Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate
6.3.1 Background
6.3.2 Analytical Approaches
6.3.3 Summary of Film-Formation Mechanism
6.3.4 Studies of Film Structure, Composition, and Thickness
6.4 Hard Disk Lubrication
6.5 Vapor-Phase Lubrication
6.6 Tribology of Quasicrystals
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Definition of an Engineered Surface
7.3 Tribomechanisms of Coated Surfaces
7.3.1 Scales of Tribology
7.3.2 Macromechanical Friction and Wear
7.3.3 Micromechanical Mechanisms
7.3.4 Modelling Stresses and Strains in a Coated Microcontact
7.3.5 Tribochemical Mechanisms
7.3.6 Nanoscale Mechanisms
7.3.7 Debris Generation and Transfer Layers
7.4 Contact Types
7.4.1 Sliding
7.4.2 Abrasion
7.4.3 Impact
7.4.4 Surface Fatigue
7.4.5 Fretting
7.4.6 Chemical Dissolution
7.4.7 Lubricated
7.5 Advanced Coating Types
7.5.1 Hard Binary Compound Coatings
7.5.2 Multilayer Coatings
7.5.3 Nanocomposite Coatings
7.5.4 Hybrid and Duplex Coatings
7.6 Applications
7.7 Conclusions
Wear of Ceramics: Wear Transitions and Tribochemical Reactions
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Structure and Properties of Ceramics
8.2.1 Alumina Ceramics
8.2.2 Silicon Nitride Ceramics
8.2.3 Silicon Carbide Ceramics
8.3 Wear Transitions
8.3.1 Alumina
8.3.2 Silicon Nitride
8.3.3 Silicon Carbide
8.4 Damage Formation in Hertzian Contacts
8.4.1 Brittle Behavior
8.4.2 Quasi-Plastic Behavior
8.4.3 Brittleness Index
8.5 Transition Loads in Sliding Contacts
8.5.1 Quasi-Plastic Behavior
8.6 Ceramics in Tribological Applications
Tribology of Diamond and Diamond-Like Carbon Films: An Overview
9.1 General Overview
9.2 Diamond Films
9.2.1 Deposition and Film Microstructure
9.2.2 Tribology of Diamond Films
9.2.3 Practical Applications
9.3 Diamond-like Carbon Films
9.3.1 Structure and Composition
9.3.2 Tribology of DLC Films
9.3.3 Synthesis of Carbon Films with Superlow-Friction and -Wear Properties
9.3.4 Practical Applications
9.4 Summary and Future Direction
Tribology of Polymeric Solids and Their Composites∗
10.1 Introduction
10.2 The Mechanisms of Polymer Friction
10.2.1 The Ploughing Term – Brief Summary
10.2.2 The Adhesion Term – Brief Summary
10.3 Wear
10.3.1 Semantics and Rationalizations
10.3.2 Wear Classification Based on Generic Scaling Responses
10.3.3 Phenomenological Classification of Wear Damages
10.3.4 Wear Classification Based on Polymeric Responses
10.4 Tribology of Polymer Composites
10.4.1 ‘Soft and Lubricating’ Phases in a Harder Matrix
10.4.2 ‘Hard and Strong’ Phases in a ‘Soft’ Matrix
10.4.3 Hybrid Polymer Composites
10.5 Environmental and Lubrication Effects
10.7 Concluding Remarks
Wear of Polymer Composites
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Sliding Wear of Filler Reinforced Polymer Composites
11.2.1 Short Fibres and Internal Lubricants
11.2.2 PTFE Matrix Composites
11.2.3 Micro- and Nanoparticle Reinforcements
11.2.4 Integration of Traditional Fillers with Inorganic Nanoparticles
11.2.5 Functionally Graded Tribo-Materials
11.3 Artificial Neural Networks Approach for Wear Prediction
11.5 Conclusions
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Relationship Between the Third Body and Friction
12.2.1 Boundary Conditions
12.2.2 Friction Analysis
12.3 Relationship Between the Third Body and Wear
12.3.1 Wear Laws
12.3.2 Material Hardness and Wear
12.4 What Methods Exist for Studying Friction and Wear?
12.4.1 The Scientific Context Surrounding Tribology
12.4.2 Physical Difficulties Related to Studying Contacts
12.4.3 So Where to from Here?
12.5 The Third-Body Concept
12.5.1 Artificial and Natural Third Bodies
12.5.2 Contact Without the Third Body
12.5.3 Types of “Solid” Third Body from the Mechanical Viewpoint
12.5.4 “Action Heights” of Third Bodies
12.6 Functions and Behaviour of the Third Body
12.6.1 Functions of the Third Body
12.6.2 Operation of Solid Third Bodies
12.6.3 Tribological Circuit of Third-Body Flows
12.6.4 Rheology of the Third Body
12.6.5 Scientific and Technological Consequences of the Tribological Circuit
12.7 Roles of the Materials in a Tribological Contact
12.7.2 Direct Role of the Materials – Scale of First Bodies
12.7.3 Optimal Direct Response of Material to the Tribological Contact
12.7.4 Consequences on the Approach Used for Solving Technological Problems
12.8 Taking into Account the Effects of the Mechanism
12.8.1 Choosing the Conditions to be Modelled
12.8.2 Technological Consequences of the Effects of the Mechanism
12.9 Taking into Account the Effect of the First Bodies
12.9.1 Local Contact Dynamics
12.9.2 Technological Consequences of the Effects of the First Bodies
12.10 “Solid” Natural Third-Body Modelling
12.10.1 Reconstruction of the Tribological Circuit
12.10.2 Technological Consequences of the Third Body
12.11 Correspondence of the Strategy Proposed to Reality
12.12 Control of Input Conditions
12.12.1 Objectives
12.12.2 Procedure
12.12.3 Precautions
12.13 Performing Experiments
12.13.1 Initial Conditions
12.13.2 Exterior of the Contact
12.13.3 Interior of the Contact
12.14 Conclusions
Basic Principles of Fretting
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Wear
13.3 Industrial Needs
13.4 Fretting in Assemblies
13.5 Fretting Processes
13.6 Fretting Parameters
13.6.1 Nature of Loading
13.6.2 Nature of the First Bodies
13.6.3 Coatings
13.6.4 Environment
13.6.5 Frequency
13.6.6 Temperature
13.7 Conclusions
Characterization and Classification of Abrasive Particles and Surfaces
14.1 Introduction
14.2 General Descriptors of Particle Shape
14.3 Particle Angularity Parameters
14.3.2 Cone-Fit Analysis (CFA)
14.3.3 Sharpness Analysis
14.4 Particle Size Effect in Abrasive Wear
14.5 Sharpness of Surfaces
14.5.1 Characterization of Surface Sharpness by the Modified SPQ Method
14.5.2 Characterization of Surface Sharpness by SA
14.6 Classification of Abrasive Surfaces
14.7 Summary
Wear Mapping of Materials
15.1 Introduction
15.1.1 Wear – A System Perspective
15.1.2 Historical Material Selection Guide
15.7.3 Material Selection Guided by Wear Maps
15.7.4 Wear Mechanism Identification
15.7.5 Wear Modeling Guide Based on Wear Maps
15.7.6 Wear Prediction Based on Wear Maps
15.8 Construction Techniques of Wear Maps
15.8.1 Conducting Wear Experiments
15.8.2 Wear Data
15.8.3 Data Trend Analysis
15.8.4 Wear Mapping
15.8.5 Selection of Parameters for Mapping
15.8.6 Assumptions in the Step-Loading Test Procedure
15.9 Application Map Concept and Examples
15.10 Future Wear Map Research
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Maintenance Practice and Tribological Principles
16.2.1 Maintenance Practice – A Brief Historical Overview
16.2.2 Tribological Principles
16.2.3 Tribology and Maintenance
16.3 Failure Diagnoses
16.3.1 Failure Morphology and Analysis
16.3.2 Dealing with Failure – Two Short Case Studies
16.3.3 Comment
16.4 Condition-Based Maintenance
16.5 Wear and Wear Debris Analysis
16.5.2 Summary of Laboratory Test Results
16.5.3 Wear Particle Classification and Application
16.6 Predicting the Remaining Useful Life and Evaluating the Cost Benefits
16.6.1 Remaining Useful Life Predictions
16.6.2 Evaluating the Cost Benefits
16.7 Closure
Index
P. 1
Wear: Materials, Mechanisms and Practice

Wear: Materials, Mechanisms and Practice

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Published by Wiley
Tribology is emerging from the realm of steam engines and crank-case lubricants and becoming key to vital new technologies such as nanotechnology and MEMS. Wear is an integral part of tribology, and an effective understanding and appreciation of wear is essential in order to achieve the reliable and efficient operation of almost any machine or device. Knowledge in the field has increased considerably over recent years, and continues to expand: this book is intended to stimulate its readers to contribute towards the progress of this fascinating subject that relates to most of the known disciplines in physical science.

Wear – Materials, Mechanisms and Practice provides the reader with a unique insight into our current understanding of wear, based on the contributions of numerous internationally acclaimed specialists in the field.

Offers a comprehensive review of current knowledge in the field of wear. Discusses latest topics in wear mechanism classification. Includes coverage of a wide variety of materials such as metals, polymers, polymer composites, diamonds, and diamond-like films and ceramics. Discusses the chemo-mechanical linkages that control tribology, providing a more complete treatment of the subject than just the conventional mechanical treatments. Illustrated throughout with carefully compiled diagrams that provide a unique insight into the controlling mechanisms of tribology.

The state of the art research on wear and the mechanisms of wear featured will be of interest to post-graduate students and lecturers in engineering, materials science and chemistry. The practical applications discussed will appeal to practitioners across virtually all sectors of engineering and industry including electronic, mechanical and electrical, quality and reliability and design.

Tribology is emerging from the realm of steam engines and crank-case lubricants and becoming key to vital new technologies such as nanotechnology and MEMS. Wear is an integral part of tribology, and an effective understanding and appreciation of wear is essential in order to achieve the reliable and efficient operation of almost any machine or device. Knowledge in the field has increased considerably over recent years, and continues to expand: this book is intended to stimulate its readers to contribute towards the progress of this fascinating subject that relates to most of the known disciplines in physical science.

Wear – Materials, Mechanisms and Practice provides the reader with a unique insight into our current understanding of wear, based on the contributions of numerous internationally acclaimed specialists in the field.

Offers a comprehensive review of current knowledge in the field of wear. Discusses latest topics in wear mechanism classification. Includes coverage of a wide variety of materials such as metals, polymers, polymer composites, diamonds, and diamond-like films and ceramics. Discusses the chemo-mechanical linkages that control tribology, providing a more complete treatment of the subject than just the conventional mechanical treatments. Illustrated throughout with carefully compiled diagrams that provide a unique insight into the controlling mechanisms of tribology.

The state of the art research on wear and the mechanisms of wear featured will be of interest to post-graduate students and lecturers in engineering, materials science and chemistry. The practical applications discussed will appeal to practitioners across virtually all sectors of engineering and industry including electronic, mechanical and electrical, quality and reliability and design.

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Publish date: Aug 14, 2006
Added to Scribd: Jun 02, 2013
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9780470017012
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