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Digital Image Enhancement Techniques
Now a days digital images have enveloped the complete world. The digital cameraswhich are main source of digital images are widely available in the market in cheapranges. Sometimes the image taken from a digital camera is not of quality and it requiredsome enhancement. There exist many techniques that can enhance a digital imagewithout spoiling it. First of all, let me tell you that the enhancement methods can broadlybe divided in to the following two categories:1. Spatial Domain Methods2. Frequency Domain MethodsIn spatial domain techniques, we directly deal with the image pixels. The pixel values aremanipulated to achieve desired enhancement. In frequency domain methods, the image isfirst transferred in to frequency domain. It means that, the Fourier Transform of theimage is computed first. All the enhancement operations are performed on the Fouriertransform of the image and then the Inverse Fourier transform is performed to get theresultant image.Before we proceed for the further discussion, I must tell you that we will consider onlygray level images. The same theory can be extended for the color images too. A digitalgray image can have pixel values in the range of 0 to 255.
A Digital Gray Level Image
A digital gray image is a simple two dimensional matrix of numbers ranging from 0 to255. These numbers represents different shades of gray. The number ‘0’ represents pureblack color and number ‘255’ represents pure white color.
Create Negative of an Image
The most basic and simple operation in digital image processing is to compute thenegative of an image. The pixel gray values are inverted to compute the negative of animage. For example, if an image of size R x C, where R represents number of rows and Crepresents number of columns, is represented by I(r,c). The negative N(r,c) of imageI(r,c) can be computed asN(r,c) = 255 – I(r,c) where 0 <= r <= R and 0 <= c <= CIt can be seen that every pixel value from the original image is subtracted from the 255.The resultant image becomes negative of the original image.
If the digital image is of poor brightness, the objects in the image will not be visibleclearly. It should be the case when the image is captured under low light conditions. Torectify this problem, we can further increase the brightness of the captured digital imageand make the image more attractive. If we study the histogram of a low-brightness image,