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FIGURE 1.2.1 Step function (z) for the system in Example 1.2.2
FIGURE 1.6.1 Reed–Muller matrix for m=3 and the polarity vector H =(010)
FIGURE 1.8.2 Two-level implementation of switching function in Example 1.8.1
FIGURE 1.8.4 Simpliﬁed two-level implementation of f in Example 1.8.1
SPECTRAL TRANSFORMS FOR LOGIC FUNCTIONS
2.1 ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES FOR SPECTRAL TRANSFORMS
2.2 FOURIER SERIES
2.3 BASES FOR SYSTEMS OF BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS
2.3.1 Basis Functions
2.3.2 Walsh Functions
FIGURE 2.3.1 Walsh functions corresponding to Deﬁnition 2.3.1 for m=3
FIGURE 2.3.2 Walsh functions corresponding to Deﬁnition 2.3.2 for m=3
FIGURE 2.3.12 Generation of speciﬁc Haar functions for q=1, l=3
FIGURE 2.3.13 Generation of speciﬁc Haar functions for q=2, l=3
FIGURE 2.3.15 Circuit that generates terms in Haar expressions (2.3.21)
FIGURE 2.3.16 Complete inverse Haar transform circuit
2.4 WALSH RELATED TRANSFORMS
2.4.1 Arithmetic Transform
2.4.2 Arithmetic Expressions from Walsh Expansions
2.5 BASES FOR SYSTEMS OF MULTIPLE-VALUED FUNCTIONS
2.5.1 Vilenkin–Chrestenson Functions and Their Properties
2.5.2 Generalized Haar Functions
2.7 AUTOCORRELATION AND CROSS-CORRELATION FUNCTIONS
2.7.3 Properties of Correlation Functions
2.7.4 Generalized Autocorrelation Functions
2.8 HARMONIC ANALYSIS OVER AN ARBITRARY FINITE ABELIAN GROUP
2.8.2 Construction of Group Characters
2.8.3 Fourier–Galois Transforms
2.9 FOURIER TRANSFORM ON FINITE NON-ABELIAN GROUPS
2.9.1 Representation of Finite Groups
2.9.2 Fourier Transform on Finite Non-Abelian Groups
CALCULATION OF SPECTRAL TRANSFORMS
3.1 CALCULATION OF WALSH SPECTRA
3.1.1 Matrix Interpretation of the Fast Walsh Transform
3.1.3 Calculation of the Walsh Spectrum Through BDD
3.2 CALCULATION OF THE HAAR SPECTRUM
3.2.1 FFT-Like Algorithms for the Haar Transform
3.2.2 Matrix Interpretation of the Fast Haar Transform
FIGURE 3.2.1 Cooley-Tukey fast Haar transform
FIGURE 3.2.2 Flow-graph of the Cooley-Tukey fast inverse Haar transform
FIGURE 3.2.3 Calculation of the Haar spectrum in Example 3.2.1
3.2.3 Calculation of the Haar Spectrum Through BDD
FIGURE 3.2.4 Fast Haar transform for m=3
FIGURE 3.2.5 Fast inverse Haar transform for m=3
FIGURE 3.2.6 Calculation of the Haar transform for m=3 through MTBDT(f)
FIGURE 3.2.8 MTBDD for the Haar spectrum in Example 3.2.8
FIGURE 3.2.9 BDD for the Haar spectrum for f in Example 1.4.2
FIGURE 3.2.10 In-order procedure for BDD for f in Example 3.2.9
3.3 CALCULATION OF THE VILENKIN–CHRESTENSON SPECTRUM
FIGURE 3.3.2 Vilenkin–Chrestenson FFT for p=3 and m=2
3.4 CALCULATION OF THE GENERALIZED HAAR SPECTRUM
3.5 CALCULATION OF AUTOCORRELATION FUNCTIONS
3.5.1 Matrix Notation for the Wiener–Khinchin Theorem
3.5.2 Wiener–Khinchin Theorem Over Decision Diagrams
FIGURE 3.5.1 Calculation of the autocorrelation of f(z0,z1)
FIGURE 3.5.3 MTBDT and MTBDD for f in Example 3.5.2
FIGURE 3.5.4 MTBDD for the autocorrelation function Bf(τ)
FIGURE 3.5.7 MTBDD for the Walsh spectrum for f in Example 3.5.6
FIGURE 3.5.8 Transformation of nodes
FIGURE 3.5.10 MTBDDs for f(z) and f(z⊕3) in Example 3.5.7
FIGURE 3.5.11 Calculation of the autocorrelation coefﬁcient Bf(τ)
FIGURE 3.5.12 Explanation of calculation of Bf(1) for m=3
4.1 REDUCTION OF SIZES OF DECISION DIAGRAMS
4.1.1 K-Procedure for Reduction of Sizes of Decision Diagrams
FIGURE 4.1.5 MTBDD(Qσ) for σ =σ3
4.1.2 Properties of theK-Procedure
CONSTRUCTION OF LINEARLY TRANSFORMED BINARY DECISION DIAGRAMS 169
4.2 CONSTRUCTION OF LINEARLY TRANSFORMED BINARY DECISION DIAGRAMS
FIGURE 4.2.1 SBDD for the system of functions in Example 4.2.1
4.2.2 ModiﬁedK-Procedure
Procedure 4.2.2 (Modiﬁed K-procedure)
4.2.3 Computing Autocorrelation by Symbolic Manipulations
FIGURE 4.2.3 LT-BDD for the decoder for the (5,2) shortened Hamming code
4.3 CONSTRUCTION OF LINEARLY TRANSFORMED PLANAR BDD
4.3.1 Planar Decision Diagrams
FIGURE 4.3.1 BDD for the majority function of ﬁve variables
FIGURE 4.3.2 BDD for symmetric functions of three variables
FIGURE 4.3.3 Planar BDD for symmetric functions deﬁned on Cm
FIGURE 4.3.4 Rectangular planar BDD for S3(6)
4.3.2 Construction of Planar LT-BDD by Walsh Coefﬁcients
FIGURE 4.3.5 BDD for f in Example 4.3.4
FIGURE 4.3.6 LT-BDD for f in Example 4.3.4
4.3.3 Upper Bounds on the Number of Nodes in Planar BDDs
FIGURE 4.3.8 Decision tree and subtrees for two variables
FIGURE 4.3.9 BDD for f in Example 4.3.6
FIGURE 4.3.10 LTBDD for f in Example 4.3.6
FIGURE 4.3.11 Decision tree for f linearized with respect to r variables
4.3.4 Experimental Results for Complexity of Planar LT-BDDs
4.4 SPECTRAL INTERPRETATION OF DECISION DIAGRAMS
FIGURE 4.4.1 BDT and BDD for f in Example 4.4.1
FIGURE 4.4.2 STDT for f in Example 4.4.1
4.4.1 Haar Spectral Transform Decision Diagrams
FIGURE 4.4.4 HSTDD for f in Example 4.4.3
FIGURE 4.4.5 HSTDD for fσ in Example 4.4.3
4.4.2 Haar Transform Related Decision Diagrams
ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF LOGIC FUNCTIONS
5.1 SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS
5.1.1 Linear Functions
5.1.2 Self-Dual and Anti-Self-Dual Functions
5.1.4 Quadratic Forms, Functions with Flat Autocorrelation
5.2 ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF THRESHOLD ELEMENT NETWORKS
5.2.1 Threshold Elements
5.2.2 Identiﬁcation of Single Threshold Functions
FIGURE 5.2.1 Block diagram of a linear threshold network
FIGURE 5.2.2 Realization of the function f in Example 5.2.4
5.3 COMPLEXITY OF LOGIC FUNCTIONS
5.3.3 Complexity Criteria for Multiple-Valued Functions
5.4 SERIAL DECOMPOSITION OF SYSTEMS OF SWITCHING FUNCTIONS
5.4.1 Spectral Methods and Complexity
5.4.5 Classiﬁcation of Switching Functions by Linearization
FIGURE 5.4.1 Matrices ση and Tη
FIGURE 5.5.1 Network to realize the parallel approximation of f
5.5.3 Complexity Analysis of Polynomial Approximations
5.5.4 Approximation Methods for Multiple-Valued Functions
5.5.5 Estimation on the Numbers of Nonzero Coefﬁcients
6.1 SPECTRAL METHODS OF SYNTHESIS OF COMBINATORIAL DEVICES
6.1.1 Spectral Representations of Systems of Logic Functions
6.1.2 Spectral Methods for the Design of Combinatorial Devices
FIGURE 6.1.2 Realization of f in Example 6.1.1 from the discrete Haar series
FIGURE 6.1.3 Realization of con1 from the optimized Haar series in Example 6.1.2
FIGURE 6.1.4 Realization of f in Example 6.1.1 from Walsh series
FIGURE 6.1.6 Network implementing multiplication by σ
6.1.5 Linear Transforms of Variables in Haar Expressions
6.1.6 Synthesis with Haar Functions
6.2.1 Synthesis of Incompletely Speciﬁed Switching Functions
6.3 SPECTRAL METHODS OF SYNTHESIS OF MULTIPLE-VALUED FUNCTIONS
6.3.1 Multiple-Valued Functions
6.3.2 Network Implementations of Multiple-Valued Functions
6.3.3 Completion of Multiple-Valued Functions
6.3.4 Complexity of Linear Multiple-Valued Networks
FIGURE 6.3.1 Network realizing multiplication by σ in Example 6.3.2
FIGURE 6.4.2 Design of a sequence generator by linear transform of variables
7.1 REALIZATION OF FINITE AUTOMATA BY SPECTRAL METHODS
7.1.1 Finite Structural Automata
FIGURE 7.1.1 Structure of a Moore automaton
7.1.2 Spectral Implementation of Excitation Functions
7.3 STATE ASSIGNMENT FOR INCOMPLETELY SPECIFIED AUTOMATA
7.4 SOME SPECIAL CASES OF THE ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
7.4.1 Preliminary Remarks
7.4.2 Autonomous Automata
HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF SPECTRAL METHODS
8.1 SPECTRAL METHODS OF SYNTHESIS WITH ROM
8.2 SERIAL IMPLEMENTATION OF SPECTRAL METHODS
8.3 SEQUENTIAL HAAR NETWORKS
8.7 REALIZATION BY EXPANSIONS OVER FINITE FIELDS
9.1 SPECTRAL METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF ERROR CORRECTING CAPABILITIES
9.1.1 Errors in Combinatorial Devices
9.1.2 Analysis of Error-Correcting Capabilities
9.1.3 Correction of Arithmetic Errors
9.2 SPECTRAL METHODS FOR SYNTHESIS OF RELIABLE DIGITAL DEVICES
FIGURE 9.2.1 Digital system for transmission and processing of information
FIGURE 9.2.2 Linearized digital system for transmission and processing
9.2.2 Correction of Single Errors
9.2.3 Correction of Burst Errors
9.2.4 Correction of Errors with Different Costs
9.2.5 Correction of Multiple Errors
9.3 CORRECTING CAPABILITY OF SEQUENTIAL MACHINES
9.3.1 Error Models for Finite Automata
9.3.2 Computing an Expected Number of Corrected Errors
FIGURE 9.3.1 State diagram for the automaton in Example 9.3.1
9.3.3 Error-Correcting Capabilities of Linear Automata
9.3.4 Error-Correcting Capability of Group Automata
9.3.5 Error-Correcting Capabilities of Counting Automata
9.4 SYNTHESIS OF FAULT-TOLERANT AUTOMATA WITH SELF-ERROR CORRECTION
9.4.1 Fault-Tolerant Devices
9.4.2 Spectral Implementation of Fault-Tolerant Automata
9.5 COMPARISON OF SPECTRAL AND CLASSICAL METHODS
SPECTRAL METHODS FOR TESTING OF DIGITAL SYSTEMS
10.1.1 Fault Models
10.1.2 Conditions for Testability
FIGURE 10.1.2 Network from Example 10.1.2
FIGURE 10.1.3 Networks from Example 10.1.2 with a control input c
10.1.3 Conditions for Fault Diagnosis
10.2.1 Introduction to Linear Checks
10.2.2 Check Complexities of Linear Checks
10.2.4 Hardware Implementations of Linear Checks
FIGURE 10.2.1 Network implementation of the check from Example 10.2.3
10.2.5 Error-Detecting Capabilities of Linear Checks
FIGURE 10.2.3 Block diagram of an n-bit adder
10.3 LINEAR CHECKS FOR PROCESSORS
10.4 LINEAR CHECKS FOR ERROR DETECTION IN POLYNOMIAL COMPUTATIONS
10.7 TESTING FOR NUMERICAL COMPUTATIONS
10.7.1 Linear Inequality Checks for Numerical Computations
10.7.2 Properties of Linear Inequality Checks
10.7.3 Check Complexities for Positive (Negative) Functions
10.8 OPTIMAL INEQUALITY CHECKS AND ERROR-CORRECTING CODES
10.9 ERROR DETECTION IN COMPUTER MEMORIES BY LINEAR CHECKS
10.11 DETECTION AND LOCATION OF ERRORS IN RANDOM-ACCESS MEMORIES
11.1 TRANSFORMS DESIGNED FOR PARTICULAR APPLICATIONS
11.1.1 Hybrid Transforms
11.1.3 Slant Transform
11.1.4 Parameterised Transforms
11.2 WAVELET TRANSFORMS
11.3 FIBONACCI TRANSFORMS
11.3.1 Fibonacci p-Numbers
11.3.2 Fibonacci p-Codes
11.3.3 Contracted Fibonacci p-Codes
11.3.5 Fibonacci-Haar Transform
11.3.6 Fibonacci SOP-Expressions
11.3.7 Fibonacci Reed–Muller Expressions
11.4 TWO-DIMENSIONAL SPECTRAL TRANSFORMS
11.4.1 Two-Dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform
APPENDIX A
REFERENCES
INDEX
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Spectral Logic and Its Applications for the Design of Digital Devices

# Spectral Logic and Its Applications for the Design of Digital Devices

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Spectral techniques facilitate the design and testingof today's increasingly complex digital devicesThere is heightened interest in spectral techniques for the design of digital devices dictated by ever increasing demands on technology that often cannot be met by classical approaches. Spectral methods provide a uniform and consistent theoretic environment for recent achievements in this area, w...
Spectral techniques facilitate the design and testingof today's increasingly complex digital devicesThere is heightened interest in spectral techniques for the design of digital devices dictated by ever increasing demands on technology that often cannot be met by classical approaches. Spectral methods provide a uniform and consistent theoretic environment for recent achievements in this area, w...

Publish date: Jul 14, 2008
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