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George Berkeley - Scrieri metafizice

George Berkeley - Scrieri metafizice

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SCRIERI METAFIZICE
George BERKELEY

TRATAT DESPRE PRINCIPIILE CUNOA\u015eTERII UMANE
TREI DIALOGURI \u00ceNTRE HYLAS \u015eI PHILONOUS \u00ceMPOTRIVA SCEPTICILOR \u015eI
ATEILOR

CUPRINS
Poc\u0103in\u0163a ne\u00een\u0163elesului George Berkeley, cuv\u00e2nt introductiv de dr. Leonard GAVRILIU ..

I. TRATAT DESPRE PRINCIPIILE CUNOA\u015eTERII UMANE ......... ............ ............ ............ ...
Introducere.........................................................................................................................................
Principiile cunoa\u015fterii umane...........................................................................................................
II. TREI DIALOGURI \u00ceNTRE HYLAS \u015eI PHILONOUS \u00ceMPOTRIVA
SCEPTICILOR \u015eI ATEILOR...........................................................................................................
Primul dialog

.........................................................................................................................................
Al doilea dialog....................................................................................................................................
Al treilea dialog..................................................................................................................................
Indice de nume
....................................................................................................................................

POC\u0102IN\u0162A NE\u00ceN\u0162ELESULUI GEORGE BERKELEY

\u201eI am as certain as of my own being, that
there are bodies or corporeal substances.\u201d
G. BERKELEY

A\u015fa dup\u0103 cum s-a spus c\u0103 de subMantau a lui Gogol a ie\u015fit \u00eentreaga literatur\u0103 clasic\u0103 rus\u0103 a secolului al XlX-lea, tot a\u015fa s-a spus c\u0103 principiile metafizice formulate de George Berkeley (Kilcrin, comitatul Kilkenny, Irlanda, 1685 - Oxford, 1753) au f\u0103cut cu putin\u0163\u0103 marele efort critic al lui David Hume \u015fi, drept urmare, \u00eentreaga filosofie a secolului al XlX-lea, ba chiar c\u0103 istoria filosofiei lui Berkeley se confund\u0103 cu istoria general\u0103 a filosofiei moderne1. Reflec\u0163ia criticist\u0103 a lui Kant n-a plecat doar de la scepticismul rodnic al lui Hume, ci \u015fi de laimaterialismul excentric al lui Berkeley. \u201eAcest subiectivism, care se revendic\u0103 de la bunul-sim\u0163 - scrie Didier Julia - l-a tulburat profund pe Kant, \u00een m\u0103sura \u00een care bunul-sim\u0163 ne \u00eenva\u0163\u0103 \u00een acela\u015fi timp c\u0103 lumea este o realitate exterioar\u0103 nou\u0103, dar c\u0103 este extrem de greu s\u0103 o demonstrezi.\u201d2 \u00cenc\u0103 \u015fi mai greu este \u00eens\u0103 de demonstrat c\u0103 lumea nu este o realitate exterioar\u0103 nou\u0103. Totu\u015fi, Berkeley \u015fi-a asumat aceast\u0103 sarcin\u0103 ingrat\u0103, ca s\u0103 nu spunem imposibil\u0103, deoarece el nutrea prezum\u0163ia c\u0103 existen\u0163a materiei ar fi incompatibil\u0103 cu existen\u0163a lui Dumnezeu (\u015fi invers). Adversar implacabil al ateismului \u015fi al oric\u0103rei fr ee-

thinking, tr\u0103ind o team\u0103 cvasimorbid\u0103 de Inchizi\u0163ie3, el a crezut c\u0103 este de datoria sa de bun
cre\u015ftin s\u0103 nege ceea ce el considera a fi suportul oric\u0103rei ireligiozit\u0103\u0163i:materia.
\u00cen fa\u0163a acestei epocale ini\u0163iative metafizice au protestat \u00een primul r\u00e2nd teologii,
\u00eentre care influentul Samuel Clarke, autorul celebrei A Demonstration ofthe Being and
Attributes of God (1704), iar faptul c\u0103 i s-a pus \u00een c\u00e2rc\u0103 (fie \u015fi numai \u00een plan anecdotic)4

decesul intempestiv al lui Nicolas Malebranche, ca urmare a unei polemici aprige avute cu Berkeley, \u00een chilia acelui vestit fitosof cre\u015ftin, la Paris, ne spune multe despre modul \u00een care era privitimaterialism ul viitorului episcop de Cloyne. A\u015fa se \u015fi explic\u0103, probabil, renun\u0163area lui la filosofie timp de vreo dou\u0103 decenii, timp \u00een care, f\u0103r\u0103 a-\u015fi sl\u0103bi deloc atacurile, gazet\u0103re\u015fti uneori, \u00eempotriva ateilor, s-a consacrat \u00een primul r\u00e2nd unor c\u0103l\u0103torii de studii prin Europa, misionarismului \u00een America, precum \u015fi actelor de patriotism (\u00een inscrip\u0163ia de pe monumentul s\u0103u funerar figureaz\u0103 \u015fi cuvintele amans patriae).

\u00cen 1721 a publicat, pe aceast\u0103 linie, An Essay towardpreventing the Ruin ofGreat
Britain. C\u00e2nd a revenit la filosofie, a f\u0103cut-o cu o str\u0103lucire \u00een primul r\u00e2nd literar\u0103, d\u00e2nd

expresie unui misticism tot mai profund, pentru care avea o cert\u0103 voca\u0163ie. La un moment dat lumea \u00eel cuno\u015ftea doar ca pe marele descoperitor al virtu\u0163ilor medicale ale \u201eapei de gudron\u201d, despre care a scris o lucrare impozant\u0103, nu lipsit\u0103 de interes \u015fi \u00een plan filosofic: Siris, a Chain

of Philosophical Reflections and Enquiries concerning the Virtues of Tar-water (1744). Dintre
operele sale de maturitate este de semnalat \u015fi suita de dialoguri Alciphron (The Minute
Philosopher), editat\u0103 \u00een 1732, la Londra, scrise \u00een maniera lui Platon \u015fi chiar \u00een viziunea
metafizic\u0103 a atenianului, deci irelevante.
Principalele sale scrieri metafizice originale r\u0103m\u00e2n cele din tinere\u0163e: A Treatise
Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710) \u015fi Three Dialogues between Hylas and
Philonous (1713). Pe prima a l\u0103sat-o neterminat\u0103, dedic\u00e2nd \u00een schimb dialogurilor (care abia

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