SIX TYPES OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES
Research and theory in cognitive science have shown that
human cognition can beanalyzed into cognitive processes
. six categories of cognitive processes based ona taxonomy of learning outcomes
.The first category—
—corresponds to tests of retention, whereas the otherfive categories correspond to tests of transfer. Thus, an important feature of thetaxonomy is that itprovides a means of assessing the cognitive processes underlying transfer.
Remember refers to
‘‘retrieving relevant knowledge from long term memory’’
. It includes recognizing (such as identifying a piece of information that correspondsto knowledge in long-term memory) and recalling (such as finding relevantknowledge in long-term memory).
Category Cognitive Processes and ActionVerbsAssessment Formats
- comparing knowledge from long-term memory with presented information.Sample learning outcome verbs may include:identify, recognize, select, label, arrange, order,repeat, copy, duplicate, match, associate.True-false; Multiple choice; Matchingitems from two lists
-retrieving knowledge from long-termmemory when presented with a question.Sample learning outcome verbs may include: recall,locate, retrieve, list, name, reproduce, state,describe, cite, recite, define, quote.Questions vary depending on the extentof providing hints and being placedwithin a larger context
Understand refers to
‘‘constructing meaning from instructional messages’’.
Itincludes interpreting (such being able to express presented information in anotherform), exemplifying (such as being able to give an example of a concept or principle),classifying (such as determining that something belongs to a category), summarizing(such as abstracting a general theme or major point), inferring (such as drawing alogical conclusion from presented material), comparing (such as detecting similaritiesand differences between two or morethings), and explaining (such as describing a cause-and-effect model of a system).