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Knowledge Types Revised

Knowledge Types Revised

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Published by TUSHTI SHARMA
Four types of knowledge-factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive

Six types of cognitive processes-remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate,create

very knowledgeable!!!!!!
Four types of knowledge-factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive

Six types of cognitive processes-remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate,create

very knowledgeable!!!!!!

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Published by: TUSHTI SHARMA on Apr 23, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Four types of knowledge
Research and theory in cognitive science have shown that there may be several kindsof knowledge.
four major
categories of knowledge based on a taxonomy of learningoutcomes (Anderson et al., 2001):
. The first two types—
factual and conceptual
— constitute knowledge of ‘‘what’’, andthe last two types
procedural and metacognitive
—constitute knowledge of ‘‘how to’’.Similarly,
factual and procedural
knowledge constitute
low level knowledge
conceptual and
high level knowledge
1. Factual knowledge
Factual knowledge consists of ‘‘the basic elements students must know to beacquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it’’. It includes knowledge of terminology and specific facts. For example, within an adventure game, students maylearn that China is in Asia, or from the instructions of a game, students may learnthat ‘‘start-up disk’’ refers to a 3.5-inch square disk that fits in a disk drive.
ExamplesFactual Knowledge -
discrete,isolated content elementsKnowledge of terminologyTechnical vocabularyKnowledge of specific details andelementsTen biggest cities in the world
2. Conceptual knowledge
Conceptual knowledge consists of ‘‘the interrelations among the basic elementswithin a larger structure than enable them to function together’’ (Anderson et al.,2001, p. 29). It includes knowledge of categories, principles, and models. Forexample, students may learn principles such as ‘‘add s to make a noun plural’’ from aword game, or students may form a mental model of how a word process or works.
Conceptual Knowledge-
interrelationships among the basicelements within a larger structureKnowledge of classifications andcategoriesForms of business ownershipKnowledge of principles andgeneralizationsNewton's laws of motionKnowledge of theories, models, andstructuresThe quantum theory, the structure of Congress
3. Procedural knowledge
Procedural knowledge consists of knowing ‘‘how to do something, methods of inquiry,and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and methods’’ (Anderson et al.,2001, p. 29). It includes knowing procedures, techniques, and methods as well as thecriteria for using them. For example, students may learn how to add signed numberswithin a math game, or may learn the steps for logging onto a computer system.
Procedural Knowledge-
knowledge of how to do somethingand criteria for using skills,algorithms, techniques, andmethodsKnowledge of subject-specific skills andalgorithmsSkills used in painting with watercolors,algorithm for finding the greatest commondivisor of two numbersKnowledge of subject-specifictechniques and methodsScientific method, using recursion as aproblem-solving technique in computerscienceKnowledge of criteria for determiningwhen to use appropriate proceduresCriteria used to determine when to apply aprocedure involving Newton's second law of motion
4. Metacognitive knowledge
Metacognitive knowledge consists of ‘‘knowledge of cognition in general as well asawareness and knowledge of one’s own cognition’’ (Anderson et al., 2001, p. 29). Itincludes knowing strategies for how to accomplish tasks, knowing about the demandsof various tasks, and knowing one’s capabilities for accomplishing various tasks. Forexample, students learn general heuristics for how to operate computer programs orgain skill in ascertaining the difficulty of learning various computer games.
Metacognitive Knowledge-
knowledge about cognition ingeneral and awareness of one'sown cognitionStrategic knowledgeKnowledge of outlining in order to capture thestructure of the presented information,knowledge of the use of heuristicsKnowledge about cognitive tasksKnowledge of the types of tests administeredby instructors, knowledge of the cognitivedemands of different tasksSelf-knowledgeKnowledge that writing essays is a personalstrength, awareness of one's own level of knowledge and skills
Research and theory in cognitive science have shown that
human cognition can beanalyzed into cognitive processes
. six categories of cognitive processes based ona taxonomy of learning outcomes
.The first category—
—corresponds to tests of retention, whereas the otherfive categories correspond to tests of transfer. Thus, an important feature of thetaxonomy is that itprovides a means of assessing the cognitive processes underlying transfer.
1. Remember
Remember refers to
‘‘retrieving relevant knowledge from long term memory’’
. It includes recognizing (such as identifying a piece of information that correspondsto knowledge in long-term memory) and recalling (such as finding relevantknowledge in long-term memory).
Category Cognitive Processes and ActionVerbsAssessment Formats
-retrieverelevantknowledgefrom long-termmemory
- comparing knowledge from long-term memory with presented information.Sample learning outcome verbs may include:identify, recognize, select, label, arrange, order,repeat, copy, duplicate, match, associate.True-false; Multiple choice; Matchingitems from two lists
 -retrieving knowledge from long-termmemory when presented with a question.Sample learning outcome verbs may include: recall,locate, retrieve, list, name, reproduce, state,describe, cite, recite, define, quote.Questions vary depending on the extentof providing hints and being placedwithin a larger context
2. Understand
Understand refers to
‘‘constructing meaning from instructional messages’’.
Itincludes interpreting (such being able to express presented information in anotherform), exemplifying (such as being able to give an example of a concept or principle),classifying (such as determining that something belongs to a category), summarizing(such as abstracting a general theme or major point), inferring (such as drawing alogical conclusion from presented material), comparing (such as detecting similaritiesand differences between two or morethings), and explaining (such as describing a cause-and-effect model of a system).

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