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Table Of Contents

1.4 Relative Power Carrying Capability of AC and DC Transmission Lines
References
2.5 Other Switching Issues
2.5.1 Switching Frequency
2.5.2 Switching Losses
2.5.3 Soft Switching
2.5.4 Use of Snubbers
2.6 Thyristor-Type Power Switches
2.6.1 The Thyristor
2.6.2 Gate Turn-Off Thyristor (GTO)
2.6.3 Insulated Gate-Commutated Thyristor (IGCT)
2.7.1 IGBT (Series) Chains
2.8 Diodes
2.9 Prognostic Assessment
2.9.1 Ratings and Applicability
2.9.2 Relative Losses
Line-Commutated HVDC Conversion
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Three-Phase AC–DC Conversion [1]
3.2.1 Basic CSC Operating Principles
3.2.2 Effect of Delaying the Firing Instant
3.3 The Commutation Process
3.3.1 Analysis of the Commutation Circuit
3.5 Inverter Operation
3.6 Power Factor and Reactive Power
3.7 Characteristic Harmonics [3]
3.7.1 DC Side Harmonics
3.7.2 AC Side Harmonics
3.8 Multi-Pulse Conversion
3.8.1 Transformer Phase Shifting
3.8.2 DC Ripple Reinjection [5]
3.9 Uncharacteristic Harmonics and Interharmonics
3.9.1 Imperfect AC Source
3.9.2 DC Modulation
3.9.3 Control System Imperfections
3.9.4 Firing Asymmetry
3.9.5 Magnification of Low-Order Harmonics
3.10 Harmonic Reduction by Filters
3.10.1 AC Side Filters
3.10.2 DC Side Filters
3.11 Frequency Cross-Modulation Across the LCC
3.12 Summary
Self-Commutating Conversion
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Voltage Source Conversion
4.2.1 VSC Operating Principles
4.2.2 Converter Components
4.2.3 The Three-Phase VSC
4.3 Comparison of LCC and VSC
4.4 Current Source Conversion
4.4.1 Analysis of the CSC Waveforms [2]
4.5 The Reinjection Concept with Self-Commutation
4.5.1 Application to VSC
4.6 Discussion
Pulse Width Modulation
5.1 Introduction
5.2 PWM Operating Principles
5.3 Selective Harmonic Cancellation
5.4 Sinusoidal (Carrier-Based) PWM
5.5 PWM Carrier-Based Implementation
5.5.1 Naturally Sampled PWM
5.5.2 Uniformly Sampled
5.6 Modulation in Multi-Bridge Converters [13]
5.7 Summary
Multi-Level Conversion
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Diode Clamping
6.2.1 Three-Level Neutral Point Clamped VSC
6.2.2 Five-Level Diode-Clamped VSC
6.2.3 Diode Clamping Generalisation
6.3.1 Three-Level Flying Capacitor
6.3.2 Multi-Level Flying Capacitor
6.4 Cascaded H-Bridge Configuration
6.5 Combined PWM/Multi-Level Conversion
6.6 Relative Merits of the Multi-Level Alternatives
Multi-Level DC Reinjection
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Soft Switching in Multi-Level Reinjection Converters
7.3.1 Firing Coordination
7.3.3 Analysis of the Output Current
7.3.4 Capacitor Voltage Balancing [10]
7.3.5 Dynamic Performance
7.4 Transformer-Coupled MLVR [11]
7.5 Cascaded H-Bridge MLVR
7.5.1 Basic Structure and Waveforms
7.5.2 Switching Pattern of the Reinjection Bridges
7.5.3 Design of the Cascaded H-Bridge Chain
7.5.4 Capacitors’ Balancing
7.5.5 STATCOM Application
7.6 Summary of Main Characteristics of MLVR Alternatives
7.7 Multi-Level Current Reinjection (MLCR) [13, 14]
7.7.1 Structure and Operating Principles
7.7.2 Self-Commutating Thyristor Conversion [15]
7.7.3 EMTDC Verification
7.8 MLCR-CSC Versus MLVR-VSC
Line-Commutated CSC Transmission
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The Line-Commutated HVDC Converter
8.3 HVDC Converter Disturbances
8.4 Structure of the HVDC Link
8.5 DC System Configurations
8.6 DC System Control and Operation
8.6.1 General Philosophy
8.6.2 Different Control Levels
8.6.3 Overall Control Coordination
8.6.4 Pole Controls
8.6.5 Converter Unit Controls
8.7 AC–DC System Interaction
8.7.1 Voltage Interaction
8.7.2 Dynamic Voltage Regulation
8.8.2 Complementary and Composite Resonances
8.9 DC Link Response to External Disturbances
8.9.1 Response to AC System Faults
8.9.2 Response to DC Line Faults
8.10 Reliability of LCC Transmission
8.11 Concluding Statements
Developments in Line-Commutated HVDC Schemes
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Capacitor Commutated Conversion [1–3]
9.2.1 Basic CCC Operation
9.2.2 Simulated Performance
9.3 Continuously Tuned AC Filters [6]
9.4 Active DC Side Filters
9.5 STATCOM-Aided DC Transmission
9.6 AC Transmission Lines Converted for Use with HVDC
9.6.1 Modulated (Tripole) DC Transmission
9.7 HVDC Transmission at Voltages above 600kV
9.8 Concluding Statements
VSC Transmission
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Power Transfer Characteristics
10.2.1 Current Relationships
10.3 Structure of the VSC Link
10.3.1 VSC-HVDC Cable Technology
10.4 VSC DC System Control
10.4.1 General Philosophy
10.4.2 Different Control Levels
10.4.3 DC Link Control Coordination
10.4.4 Control Capability of VSC Transmission [3]
10.4.5 Assistance During Grid Restoration
10.5 HVDC Light Technology
10.5.1 Two-Level PWM Schemes
10.5.2 Three-Level PWM Schemes
10.5.3 HVDC Light Performance
10.6 Other VSC Projects
10.7 Potential for Multi-Terminal Sub-Transmission Systems
10.8 Discussion
Multi-Level VSC and CSC Transmission
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Multi-Level VSC Transmission [7]
11.2.1 Power Flow Considerations
11.2.2 DC Link Control Characteristics
P. 1
Flexible Power Transmission: The HVDC Options

Flexible Power Transmission: The HVDC Options

Ratings: (0)|Views: 108 |Likes:
Published by Wiley
The development of power semiconductors with greater ratings and improved characteristics has meant that the power industry has become more willing to develop new converter configurations. These new configurations take advantage of the higher controllability and switching frequencies of the new devices. The next few years will decide which of the proposed technologies will dominate future power transmission systems.

Flexible Power Transmission is a comprehensive guide to the high voltage direct current (HVDC) options available, helping the reader to make informed decisions for designing future power transmission systems. The book includes:

a full description of the principles and components in existing converter technology, as well as alternative proposals for self-commutating conversion; A review of the state of power semiconductors suited to HVDC transmission and present proposals for multi-level HVDC transmission. a detailed overview of the flexible HVDC methods for improving controllability and increasing power transfer capability in electrical power systems. up-to-date information on thyrisistor-based HVDC technology. coverage of new pulse width modulation (PWM) transmission technology and multi-level voltage source conversion (VSC) and current source conversion (CSC).

An excellent reference for professional power engineers, Flexible Power Transmission is also a useful guide for power system researchers as well as lecturers and students in power systems and power electronics disciplines.

The development of power semiconductors with greater ratings and improved characteristics has meant that the power industry has become more willing to develop new converter configurations. These new configurations take advantage of the higher controllability and switching frequencies of the new devices. The next few years will decide which of the proposed technologies will dominate future power transmission systems.

Flexible Power Transmission is a comprehensive guide to the high voltage direct current (HVDC) options available, helping the reader to make informed decisions for designing future power transmission systems. The book includes:

a full description of the principles and components in existing converter technology, as well as alternative proposals for self-commutating conversion; A review of the state of power semiconductors suited to HVDC transmission and present proposals for multi-level HVDC transmission. a detailed overview of the flexible HVDC methods for improving controllability and increasing power transfer capability in electrical power systems. up-to-date information on thyrisistor-based HVDC technology. coverage of new pulse width modulation (PWM) transmission technology and multi-level voltage source conversion (VSC) and current source conversion (CSC).

An excellent reference for professional power engineers, Flexible Power Transmission is also a useful guide for power system researchers as well as lecturers and students in power systems and power electronics disciplines.

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Publish date: Sep 27, 2007
Added to Scribd: Jun 03, 2013
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9780470511855
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