Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
The Impact of Religion on Party Identification in the Americas

The Impact of Religion on Party Identification in the Americas

Ratings: (0)|Views: 5 |Likes:
The Impact of Religion on Party Identification in the Americas
The Impact of Religion on Party Identification in the Americas

More info:

Published by: Alejandro Diaz-Dominguez on Jun 05, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/06/2014

pdf

text

original

 
 
The Insights Series is co-edited by Mitchell A. Seligson, Amy Erica Smith, and Elizabeth J. Zechmeister withadministrative, technical, and intellectual support from the LAPOP group at Vanderbilt.www.AmericasBarometer.org
 AmericasBarometer 
 
Insights:
 
2010
Number
 
51
 
The
 
Impact
 
of
 
Religion
 
on Party
 
Identification
 
in
 
the
 
Americas
 
By
 
 Alejandro
 
Díaz
Domínguez
 
alejandro.diaz
dominguez@vanderbilt.edu
 
Vanderbilt
 
University
 
Executive Summary.
This
Insights
report asks whether religion is related tothe extent to which citizens across the Americas identify with political parties. Itdoes so by examining three components of religious identification:
belonging
,measured by denominational affiliation;
believing
, measured by the importanceof religion in one’s life; and
behaving
, measured by attendance at churchactivities. Results show that members of the main religious groups are morelikely to identify with political parties than are religious non-identifiers, butthere are no significant differences between denominations. Moreover, evenafter taking religious affiliation into account,
believing
and
behaving
haveindependent effects on party identification. This indicates that religion affectspolitics in the Americas by helping citizens engage with party politics.
 
 
The
 
Impact
 
of 
 
Religion
 
on
 
Party
 
Identification
 
in
 
the
 
 Americas
 
 Alejandro
 
Díaz
Domínguez
 
©
 
2010,
 
Latin
 
American
 
Public
 
Opinion
 
Project
 
Insights
 
series
 
Page
 
1
 
www.AmericasBarometer.org
 
oes religion predict whether citizensin the Americas identify with politicalparties? This question is not trivialgiven that the region contains one of thehighest percentages of Catholicpopulations around the world, a strongCatholic Church organization, and alsohigh rates of Church attendance amongProtestant and Evangelical groups(Hagopian 2009). These factors arepolitically relevant, especially sinceseveral religious divisions are representedin some degree by political partiesthroughout the Americas (Lipset andRokkan 1967[1990]; Mainwaring andScully 2003).The AmericasBarometer surveys, carriedout by the Latin American Public OpinionProject (LAPOP)
1
, involved face-to-faceinterviews in 26 nations in Latin Americaand the Caribbean, as well as web surveysin the United States and Canada. Thisyields a total of 43,990 probabilisticallyselected respondents.
2
All respondentswere asked the following question:
VB10
. “Do you currently identify with apolitical party?”Responses were bivariate, and recodedhere so that ‘0’ indicates “No” and ‘1’indicates “Yes.”
3
 Figure 1 shows national percentages forthe 26 countries analyzed. Uruguay is thecountry with the highest level ofpartisanship at 66.2%, while the averagein the Americas is 33.1%. Twelvecountries exceed this average, whereas fivecountries do not even reach 22%: Peru,Argentina, Guatemala, Ecuador, and Chile. In
1
Prior issues in the
Insight
s series can be found at:http://www.vanderbilt.edu/lapop/studiesandpublications The data on which they are based can be found athttp://www.vanderbilt.edu/lapop/datasets 
2
 
Funding for the 2010 round mainly came from the UnitedStates Agency for International Development (USAID).Important sources of support were also the Inter-AmericanDevelopment Bank (IADB), the United NationsDevelopment Program (UNDP), and Vanderbilt University.
 
3
The non-response rate across the 26 countries was 2.31%.
sum, Figure 1 suggests that there is a great dealof variance in party identification across theAmericas.
How Does Religion Relate to PartyIdentification?
 In this
Insights
report, I assess the religious basesof party identification in the Americas,considering three major components of religion:
belonging
,
believing
, and
behaving
(Layman 2001:55).
Belonging
refers to religious groupmembership,
believing
speaks to the theologicalcommitment or substantive knowledge in which
D
 
 
Figure 1. Party Identification in the Americas, 2010
11.6%16.1%18.3%19.5%21.2%27.7%27.8%27.9%28.5%29.1%30.2%30.3%30.5%31.1%34.3%34.4%37.2%39.2%42.9%43.0%43.7%45.4%52.3%54.5%61.1%66.2%
ChileEcuadorGuatemalaArgentinaPeruGuyanaHaitiTrinidad & TobagoMexicoBelizeBrazilPanamaCanadaBoliviaVenezuelaEl SalvadorColombiaParaguayJamaicaNicaraguaHondurasSurinameCosta RicaDominican RepublicUnited StatesUruguay
0 20 40 60 80
Do you currently identify with a political party?
95% Confidence Interval (Design-Effects Based)Source: AmericasBarometer by LAPOP
 
 
The
 
Impact
 
of 
 
Religion
 
on
 
Party
 
Identification
 
in
 
the
 
 Americas
 
 Alejandro
 
Díaz
Domínguez
 
©
 
2010,
 
Latin
 
American
 
Public
 
Opinion
 
Project
 
Insights
 
series
 
Page
 
2
 
www.AmericasBarometer.org
 
people’s faith lies, and
behaving
to concreteexpressions of religious commitment.Party identification has been defined as an“individual’s affective orientation” to a politicalparty (Campbell, Converse, Miller and Stokes
 
1960: 121). While the degree to which thisattachment is influenced by factors aside fromfamily socialization is debated, some scholarsclaim that non-partisan loyalties such asmembership in religious groups increaseidentification with political groups. Examplesinclude Catholics’ identification with theDemocratic Party in the United States anddiverse religious denominations’ identificationwith a variety of political parties across theAmericas (Herberg 1955; Converse 1966;Magaloni and Moreno 2003; DeSipio 2007).Nevertheless,
belonging
isnot the only religiousmeasure that explainspolitical behavior;
believing
 and
behaving
also explainidentification with parties.Regarding
believing
, sacredtexts and diversetheological messagesreceived from religious leaders may shapepartisanship when religious messages arerelated to current policy debates (Layman 1997).Regarding
behaving
, religious commitment,attendance of religious services, and religiousgroup involvement also may increase partyidentification. Religious attendance implies thatparishioners meet each other on regular basis,providing opportunities for politicaldeliberation. This could lead to engagement inpolitics (Converse 1966; Wald, Owen and Hill1988; Huckfeldt, Plutzer and Sprague 1993;Kaufmann 2004).In sum,
belonging
has been found to be animportant predictor of political behavior, andthere are reasons to consider that
believing
and
behaving
are also relevant to the question ofidentification with political parties (Layman1997). In short, and not surprisingly, partyidentification “is strongly correlated withreligion” (Fiorina 1981: 254), since religionrepresents a way to interpret the world.
Measuring Religion and OtherDeterminants of Partisanship
I tap
belonging
by considering affiliation withfour main groups: Catholics, MainlineProtestants, Evangelicals and other religions.
4
Inaddition, I measure
believing
using a questionregarding the importance of religion in one’s life(Layman 2001). Finally, to tap
behaving
, I includeattendance of religious meetings such as thosesponsored by religious societies andconfraternities.
5
 In addition, I estimate an empirical model usingcognitive and demographic variables. Regardingcognitive measures, some scholars argue thatsophisticated citizens are less likely to bepartisans, whereas theirless educated fellowcitizens tend to rely moreon partisanship (Converse1966; Huber, Kernell andLeoni 2005). Nevertheless,available evidence in LatinAmerica suggests thatsophistication, as measuredby news mediaconsumption, is a positive predictor of partyidentification (Pérez-Liñán 2002; Morgan 2007).Finally, strong identification with political andeconomic ideologies may increase partisanshipgiven that differences between political partiesare likely to matter more for those who are moreextreme ideologically.
6
 
4
 
In the 26 countries of this study, 58.8% are Catholic, 8.28%Protestants, and 18.71% Evangelicals. The reference categoryis comprised of people who do not profess any religion(9.02%). The other religions category includes Latter DaySaints (1.03%), Jehovah’s Witnesses (0.30%), Jews (0.19%),Eastern (3.14%), and Native religions (0.53%). For additionaldetails regarding the classification of religiousdenominations, please see Number 29 of the
Insights Series
.
5
 
In the US and Canada, respondents were not askedwhether they attended religious services. The analysis heredoes not include this variable in order to keep these twocountries in the equation. However, prior modelsconsidering only Latin America and the Caribbean suggestthat weekly and monthly attendance increase partisanship.
6
 
Political ideological intensity is measured using a 10-pointscale from left to right (or from liberal to conservative) usinga folded variable, in which I calculated the absolute value ofthe median point of scale (5.5) minus the self-reportedplacement, i.e. 5.5-1=4.5 and 5.5-10=4.5. For 2 and 9
Parishioners meet each other onregular basis, providingopportunities for politicaldeliberation. This could lead toengagement in politics.
 

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->