The major elements are: the heavy gauge enclosure, sealed switch compartment, operatinghandle (for manual operation), fill valve/gas pressure gauge, electronic control package (pad-lockable), electronic load tap trip adjustments (knobs, push buttons), spring assisted switchoperator (with marked position indicator), provisions for padlocking, cable entrance bushings,phase indication labels, parking stands, deadbreak elbow connectors, door latches, hinged doorswith stoppers, viewing windows, ground lugs, deep well low current (eg. 200 A) bushings,mechanical trip and reset lever, provisions for door padlocking, motor operator/RTUs. Themotor/RTU installation would provide remote operation of the switches (from a control station)or local operation (motor operated). With the availability of sensors/RTU in the pad mountedswitchgear assembly, the remote indication of the load levels and faults (currents) at the controlstation may assist the operators in running the system more efficiently with less down times andhigher levels of supply continuity.P
roduction tests conducted on padmounted switchgear assemblies:
The production tests run on such assemblies are: continuity test (to assure correct internalconnections), hi-pot (dielectric), pressure test (to assure tank is sealed), the protective(electronic o/c) device characteristics curve and leakage tests (if required).
Remote operation & indication of pad mounted switchgear:
To remotely operate and indicate with pad mounted switchgear and underground distributionsystems, the following elements are to be part of the switchgear unit: one set of three currentsensors on the load side of each interrupter (or switch), source side PT with 120 V (for example)secondary voltage, radios/modems or the required communication equipment, connector forremote antenna (if applicable), local interface in the controller (status, control switches,displays), local communication port to allow setup/updating software/troubleshooting/reportgeneration using a laptop. Should ducts be, already, installed the use of fiber opticscommunication network would be the most suitable (over other means of communications: RF,PLC, ....., etc.). Fiber optics is immune to electromagnetic and radio interference, thus it can beplaced in ducts containing high voltage Cu or Al cables (i.e. 15, 27.6 kV). The elements that areneeded to build a fiber optic network beside the cable are the transceivers with the serial andoptical ports (LED transmitter and photodiode receiver), the RTUs, optical splitters, multiplexesand modems.Padmounted switchgear can be defined (specified) accordingly: the insulating material used i.e.air insulated, oil or gas, the nominal voltage class, maximum operating voltage, the basicimpulse level, the current ratings for the different sides i.e. continuous current, load interruption(resistive, inductive including no load transformer magnetizing and capacitive including cablecharging), momentary, fault close, the dimensions of the gear, the opening for the cable entry,properties of steel work (like thickness -gauge, surface treatment and finish), the weight and theassembly voltage withstandability tests (A.C. and D.C.). The speed of operation (current timecurves) for the fuses or protective devices had to be specified.Distribution transformers: