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Overhead and underground distribution systems components, part 2

Overhead and underground distribution systems components, part 2

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Published by Hany Kheir
air, oil-filled, sf6/vacuum padmounted switchgear components, production tests of padmounted switchgear & remote operation, methods of mounting distribution transformers, basic components & accessories of transformers, amorphous metal, cores, & coils & insulation of transformers, excitation current, transformer losses, standards, gas generated in oil immersed transformers & lightning arresters..
air, oil-filled, sf6/vacuum padmounted switchgear components, production tests of padmounted switchgear & remote operation, methods of mounting distribution transformers, basic components & accessories of transformers, amorphous metal, cores, & coils & insulation of transformers, excitation current, transformer losses, standards, gas generated in oil immersed transformers & lightning arresters..

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Published by: Hany Kheir on Apr 24, 2009
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06/01/2013

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Overhead and underground distribution systems components, part 2.
Padmounted switchgear:G
eneral description of padmounted switchgear:
These switching assemblies can be classified into air insulated, oil sealed insulated, or SF6/loadbreak switches and vacuum fault interrupters. Typically, for the air insulated type when theseparable connectors are in place, the construction will have all energized parts enclosed ingrounded (shield) enclosure (dead front). Verification of the open switch (visible break) ispossible through Plexiglas viewing windows. The three phase gang operated switches in theassembly are operated without having to open the cable compartment. The 600 A dead-break bushings are externally replaceable. The unit will have parking stands, replacement fuse storagepockets, ground pads for grounding provisions, door retainers, latching (3 point) arrangement,fuse viewing windows, lifting provisions, fault indicators and floor cover (if required). Fig. 1.3shows the major compartments and mounting method on pre-cast concrete pad.M
ajor components of oil filled padmounted switchgear unit:
The oil filled units will have a fill plug, a drain valve, the oil gauge, the cable entrance, the steeltank, the spring operator, the mechanical interlock over the fuse compartment, groundingprovision, parking stands and the hinged cover.M
ajor components of SF6/vacuum units:
 
The major elements are: the heavy gauge enclosure, sealed switch compartment, operatinghandle (for manual operation), fill valve/gas pressure gauge, electronic control package (pad-lockable), electronic load tap trip adjustments (knobs, push buttons), spring assisted switchoperator (with marked position indicator), provisions for padlocking, cable entrance bushings,phase indication labels, parking stands, deadbreak elbow connectors, door latches, hinged doorswith stoppers, viewing windows, ground lugs, deep well low current (eg. 200 A) bushings,mechanical trip and reset lever, provisions for door padlocking, motor operator/RTUs. Themotor/RTU installation would provide remote operation of the switches (from a control station)or local operation (motor operated). With the availability of sensors/RTU in the pad mountedswitchgear assembly, the remote indication of the load levels and faults (currents) at the controlstation may assist the operators in running the system more efficiently with less down times andhigher levels of supply continuity.P
roduction tests conducted on padmounted switchgear assemblies:
The production tests run on such assemblies are: continuity test (to assure correct internalconnections), hi-pot (dielectric), pressure test (to assure tank is sealed), the protective(electronic o/c) device characteristics curve and leakage tests (if required).
Remote operation & indication of pad mounted switchgear:
To remotely operate and indicate with pad mounted switchgear and underground distributionsystems, the following elements are to be part of the switchgear unit: one set of three currentsensors on the load side of each interrupter (or switch), source side PT with 120 V (for example)secondary voltage, radios/modems or the required communication equipment, connector forremote antenna (if applicable), local interface in the controller (status, control switches,displays), local communication port to allow setup/updating software/troubleshooting/reportgeneration using a laptop. Should ducts be, already, installed the use of fiber opticscommunication network would be the most suitable (over other means of communications: RF,PLC, ....., etc.). Fiber optics is immune to electromagnetic and radio interference, thus it can beplaced in ducts containing high voltage Cu or Al cables (i.e. 15, 27.6 kV). The elements that areneeded to build a fiber optic network beside the cable are the transceivers with the serial andoptical ports (LED transmitter and photodiode receiver), the RTUs, optical splitters, multiplexesand modems.Padmounted switchgear can be defined (specified) accordingly: the insulating material used i.e.air insulated, oil or gas, the nominal voltage class, maximum operating voltage, the basicimpulse level, the current ratings for the different sides i.e. continuous current, load interruption(resistive, inductive including no load transformer magnetizing and capacitive including cablecharging), momentary, fault close, the dimensions of the gear, the opening for the cable entry,properties of steel work (like thickness -gauge, surface treatment and finish), the weight and theassembly voltage withstandability tests (A.C. and D.C.). The speed of operation (current timecurves) for the fuses or protective devices had to be specified.Distribution transformers:
 
M
ethods of mounting (installing) distribution transformers on poles:
These transformers can be fastened directly to the poles, hung from cross arms, mounted onracks or platforms or mounted on brackets attached to the poles. The KVA ratings for suchtransformers are low i.e. 167 or 250. The pole mounted transformers can be installed in clustersof 3 transformers attached to the supporting brackets of which the latter are attached to thepoles.M
ain attachments (accessories) used to complete the installation of the overhead (polemounted) distribution transformer:
The high voltage bushing with the clamp type connector is connected to the primary (mediumvoltage circuit) and the low voltage cables are connected to spade type connectors. The polemounted transformers use oil as the insulating material. They are installed in manyconfigurations. In general, these transformers are connected to the primary circuit through acurrent limiting fuse and a fuse cutout. To protect the transformers against lightning or voltagesurges, the primary of the transformer will have a lightning arrester connected across it and theground. There is another type of pole mounted transformers which is the completely self protected one (CSP). Primary fuses and lightning arresters are included with the transformer,thus there is no need to any external protective device except for a current limiting fuse.

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