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Table Of Contents

Summary
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Establishing the Cause of Disease
1.3 The Range of Organisms that Cause Plant Disease
1.3.1 Parasitic angiosperms
1.3.2 Fungi
1.3.3 Nematodes
1.3.4 Algae
1.3.5 Oomycetes
1.3.6 Plasmodiophoromoycetes
1.3.7 Trypanosomatids
1.3.8 Bacteria
1.3.9 Phytoplasmas
1.3.10 Viruses
1.3.11 Viroids
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Host range and symptomatology
2.3 Morphology of the causal organism
2.4 Selective media
2.5 Biochemical markers
2.5.1 Substrate metabolism
2.5.2 Fatty acid profiles (FAME analysis)
2.5.3 Protein analysis
2.5.4 Serological techniques
2.5.5 Nucleic acid techniques
2.5.6 Choice of diagnostic techniques
2.5.7 Ralstonia solanacearum – a case study
3.2.3 Fitting disease progress curves to epidemiological data
3.3 The role of the pathogen
3.3.1 Sources of inoculum
3.3.2 Vectors
3.4 The role of the host
3.4.1 Host-plant distribution
3.5 The role of the environment
3.5.1 The soil
3.5.2 The atmosphere
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Parameters of disease and their measurement
4.2.1 Measurement of disease pressure in the soil
4.2.2 Measurement of the pathogen populations in the soil
4.2.3 Measurement of pathogen populations in the air
4.2.4 Measurement of pathogens in the plant
4.5.3 Coupling disease progress with plant growth
4.5.4 Coupling disease predictions with economic loss
5 Inoculum Control
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Reducing the sources of inoculum
5.2.4 Eradicating inoculum from the soil
5.3 Reducing inoculum multiplication
5.4 Reducing the effectiveness of inoculum
5.4.1 The role of forecasting
5.4.2 Biological control
5.5.1 Screening for biological control agents
5.6 Reducing the spread of inoculum
5.6.1 Controlling the spread of wind-borne inoculum
5.6.2 Controlling the spread of water-borne inoculum
5.6.3 Controlling the spread of soil-borne inoculum
5.6.5 Controlling the spread of inoculum by vectors
6.1 Introduction
6.3 The physical and chemical characteristics of plant cell walls
6.4 Chemotaxis, encystment and chemotropism
6.5 Passive entry through natural openings
6.6.1 Hydrophobicity
6.6.2 Hardness
6.6.3 Chemical signals
6.6.4 Topographical features
6.7 Adhesion
6.8 Breaching the cell wall by mechanical force
6.9.2 Pectolytic enzymes
6.9.3 Cellulases and xylanases
6.9.4 Enzymes involved in the degradation of lignin
6.9.5 Proteases
6.9.6 Membranlytic enzymes
6.10 Global regulation of degradative enzymes
6.11 Nutrition of the pathogen
6.12 Movement of viruses through the plant
7 Subverting the Metabolism of the Host
7.1 Introduction
7.2.1 Auxins
7.2.2 Cytokinins
7.2.3 Gibberellins
7.2.4 Ethylene
7.2.5 Abscisic acid (ABA)
7.2.6 Jasmonates
7.2.7 Brassinosteroids
7.2.8 Peptide hormones
7.3.1 Abnormal growth
7.3.2 Redirection of nutrients
7.3.3 Stunting
7.3.4 Chlorosis and necrosis
7.3.5 Epinasty
7.3.6 Abscission
7.4 Crown gall
8 Killing the Host – the Role of Toxins
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Macroscopic symptoms
8.3 Bioassay
8.4 Host-selective toxins (HSTs)
8.4.1 Host-selective toxins from Alternaria species
8.4.3 Host-selective toxins from other species
8.5 Non-host-selective toxins (NSTs)
8.5.1 NSTs from bacteria
8.5.2 NSTs from Oomycetes
8.5.3 NSTs from fungi
8.6 Control of toxin biosynthesis
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Physical barriers
9.3 Chemical barriers
9.3.1 Low molecular weight compounds
9.3.2 High molecular weight compounds
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Pioneering experiments
10.5.2 Function and organization of avirulence genes
10.5.4 Function and organization of resistance genes
10.6 The co-evolution of avirulence and resistance genes
10.6.1 The evolution of avirulence genes
10.6.2 The evolution of resistance genes
10.7 Hrp genes
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Rapid repsonses implicated in resistance
11.2.1 The oxidative burst
Rapid Responses Implicated in Resistance
11.2.1 The oxidative burst
11.2.3 Cross-linking of cell-wall proteins
11.2.4 Callose synthesis and deposition
11.3 Slower responses implicated in resistance
11.3.1 The hypersensitive response
11.3.2 Phytoalexins
11.3.3 Lignification
11.3.4 Suberization
11.3.6 Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs)
11.6.1 Increases in cytosolic calcium
11.6.2 Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases)
11.6.3 Salicylic acid (SA)
11.6.4 Jasmonates
11.6.5 Ethylene
11.6.6 Integration of signalling pathways
11.7 Overcoming induced resistance
12 Control of the Disease Process
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Control of pre-penetration and penetration events
12.2.3 Exploiting adhesion
12.3.1 Production of inhibitors of degradative enzymes
12.3.2 Tolerance of toxins
12.4.1 Exploiting phytoanticipins
12.4.2 Exploiting phytoalexins
12.4.3 Exploiting acquired resistance
12.5 Genetic approaches to the control of disease
12.6 Plant transformation
P. 1
Introduction to Plant Pathology

Introduction to Plant Pathology

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Published by Wiley
This invaluable resource introduces the eleven types of organism that cause plant disease, ranging from higher plants to viroids and describes examples of cash and staple crop diseases that have caused human catastrophes. Early chapters cover serological and molecular techniques for the diagnosis of plant pathogens, epidemiology, methods for estimating disease severity and its effect on crop yields and techniques for limiting inoculum. Later chapters are concerned with colonisation of the plant and symptom development and the underlying biochemical and genetic factors that control these events. Finally, the control of plant disease using a variety of techniques including genetic modification is discussed. Modern diagnostic techniques Epidemiology and the measurement of disease severity The biochemistry and molecular biology of plant disease Control through cultural, biological, genetic and molecular techniques A wealth of examples and applications including full colour photographs
This invaluable resource introduces the eleven types of organism that cause plant disease, ranging from higher plants to viroids and describes examples of cash and staple crop diseases that have caused human catastrophes. Early chapters cover serological and molecular techniques for the diagnosis of plant pathogens, epidemiology, methods for estimating disease severity and its effect on crop yields and techniques for limiting inoculum. Later chapters are concerned with colonisation of the plant and symptom development and the underlying biochemical and genetic factors that control these events. Finally, the control of plant disease using a variety of techniques including genetic modification is discussed. Modern diagnostic techniques Epidemiology and the measurement of disease severity The biochemistry and molecular biology of plant disease Control through cultural, biological, genetic and molecular techniques A wealth of examples and applications including full colour photographs

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Publish date: Feb 8, 2006
Added to Scribd: Jun 05, 2013
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9780470869536
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