J. Neural Eng.
(2013) 046003 (15pp)
Quadcopter control in three-dimensionalspace using a noninvasive motorimagery-based brain–computer interface
, Kaitlin Cassady
, Alexander Doud
, Kaleb Shades
and Bin He
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 7-105 NHH, 312 Church Street,SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of Minnesota, 725 Mayo, 420 Delaware Ave SE,Minneapolis, MN 55455, USAE-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
At the balanced intersection of human and machine adaptation is found theoptimally functioning brain–computer interface (BCI). In this study, we report a novelexperiment of BCI controlling a robotic quadcopter in three-dimensional (3D) physical spaceusing noninvasive scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in human subjects. We then quantify theperformance of this system using metrics suitable for asynchronous BCI. Lastly, we examinethe impact that the operation of a real world device has on subjects’ control in comparison to a2D virtual cursor task.
Five human subjects were trained to modulate theirsensorimotor rhythms to control an AR Drone navigating a 3D physical space. Visual feedback was provided via a forward facing camera on the hull of the drone.
Individualsubjects were able to accurately acquire up to 90.5% of all valid targets presented whiletravelling at an average straight-line speed of 0.69 m s
Freely exploring andinteracting with the world around us is a crucial element of autonomy that is lost in the contextof neurodegenerative disease. Brain–computer interfaces are systems that aim to restore orenhance a user’s ability to interact with the environment via a computer and through the use of only thought. We demonstrate for the ﬁrst time the ability to control a ﬂying robot in 3Dphysical space using noninvasive scalp recorded EEG in humans. Our work indicates thepotential of noninvasive EEG-based BCI systems for accomplishing complex control in 3Dphysical space. The present study may serve as a framework for the investigation of multidimensional noninvasive BCI control in a physical environment using telepresencerobotics.SOnline supplementary data available fromstacks.iop.org/JNE/10/046003/mmedia(Some ﬁgures may appear in colour only in the online journal)
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