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Sec500

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Published by SudharsananPRS
drainage manual part 5
drainage manual part 5

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Published by: SudharsananPRS on Jun 06, 2013
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Section 500Rainfall
Adopted August 12, 1999HYDROLOGIC CRITERIA AND DRAINAGE DESIGN MANUAL502
501INTRODUCTION
Presented in this section are the design rainfall data for the minor and major storm events as designated in Section 304.2 of this MANUAL. This data is usedto determine storm runoff in conjunction with the runoff models designated inSection 304.3. All hydrologic analyses within the jurisdiction of this MANUALshall utilize the rainfall data presented herein for calculating storm runoff.The rainfall data published by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the NOAA Atlas 2, "Precipitation - Frequency Atlas othe Western United States, Volume Vll - Nevada" (NOAA, 1973) and their subsequent modification by the United States Army Corps of Engineers(USACE), Los Angeles District (1988) shall be used to develop point rainfallvalues for Clark County. The depth-area ratios developed by the USACE, Los Angeles District (1988) based on NOAA Technical Memorandum NWSHYDRO40 (NOAA, 1984) and area data are used to reduce point rainfall to arearainfall. The distribution of design rainfall is based on studies conducted by theUSACE, Los Angeles District (1988).Calculation methods and procedures are presented herein to compute rainfalldepths and intensities for return frequencies of 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year and durations of 5-, 10-, 15-, and 30-minutes, and 1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, and 24-hours.Some of these values are not used to determine runoff for the analysis requiredby this MANUAL, but are included for informational purposes.In cases where probable maximum precipitation analyses are required,methodology outlined in a publication by NOAA and the USACE entitled“Hydrometeorological Report No. 49, Probable Maximum PrecipitationEstimates, Colorado River and Great Basin Drainages” (NOAA and USACE,1977) shall be used.The information presented in this section is the state-of-the-art informationavailable at the time of preparation of this MANUAL. The information should beupdated as better techniques and data become available in the future.
502 RAINFALL DEPTH-DURATION-FREQUENCY RELATIONS
502.1 Rainfall Depth - Duration - Frequency Maps
The NOAA Atlas 2 Rainfall Depth - Duration - Frequency Maps are reproducedfor the Clark County area at the end of this section. Maps are presented for the6- and 24-hour durations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrencefrequencies as shown in 
.The data obtained from
 
Section 500 - Rainfall
Adopted August 12, 1999HYDROLOGIC CRITERIA AND DRAINAGE DESIGN MANUAL503
these maps shall be modified according to procedure stated in Section 502.3(except for SCS TR-55 as described in 502.3).
502.2 Rainfall Depths for Durations From 1- to 6-Hours
The refined rainfall values for the 6- and the 24-hour durations for 2- and 100-year recurrence intervals are utilized in calculation of rainfall values for 1-hour durationand 2- and 100-year recurrence intervals. The following equations shall be usedto derive the 2-year, 1-hour and 100-year, 1-hour rainfall:Y
2
=-0.011 + 0.942 [ (x
1
) (x
1
/ x
2
) ](501)Y
100
=0.494 + 0.755 [ (x
3
) (x
3
/ x
4
) ](502)Where:Y
2
= 2-yr, 1-hr estimated value (in)Y
100
= 100-yr, 1-hr estimated value (in)x
1
= 2-yr, 6-hr value from
Standard Form 3
(in)x
2
= 2-yr, 24-hr value from
Standard Form 3
(in)x
3
= 100-yr, 6-hr value from
Standard Form 3
(in)x
4
= 100-yr, 24-hr value from
Standard Form 3
(in)The 2- and 100-year, 1-hour rainfall (Y
2
and Y
100
) values are then plotted on
Standard Form 3
and a straight line connecting these points is drawn. The 5-,10-, 25-, and 50-year, 1-hour rainfall values are then read from the graph.The 2- and 3-hour duration rainfall for the various recurrence intervals may thenbe calculated using the following equations:(2-hr)= 0.341 (6-hr) + 0.659 (1-hr) (503)(3-hr) = 0.569 (6-hr) + 0.431 (1-hr) (504)Where:2-hr = 2-hr 'x'-yr estimated value (in)3-hr = 3-hr 'x'-yr estimated value (in)1-hr = 1-hr 'x'-yr previously determined (in)6-hr = 6-hr 'x'-yr previously determined (in)These point rainfall values shall be modified as stated in the following Section502.3.
 
Section 500 - Rainfall
Adopted August 12, 1999HYDROLOGIC CRITERIA AND DRAINAGE DESIGN MANUAL504
502.3Adjustments to NOAA Atlas 2
Recent analysis of rainfall data in the Clark County area (WRC, 1989 andUSACE, 1988) indicates that the NOAA Atlas 2 values do not necessarily reflectthe trend of observed and recorded rainfall values which have occurred followingpublication of the Atlas in 1973. Therefore, the rainfall values in Section 502.2are to be adjusted to reflect the current trend of rainfall values based on the latestavailable information for the Clark County area. This adjustment consists of increasing the rainfall depths for durations of 6-hours or less by multiplying thevalues previously obtained by the appropriate factors presented in 
 The said adjustment shall not be used when developing the design rainfall for usewith SCS TR-55. The 24-hour design rainfall for TR-55 shall be used directly asdeveloped inSection 502.1.
503DEPTH-AREA REDUCTION FACTORS
The NOAA Atlas 2 precipitation depths are related to rainfall frequency at anisolated point. Storms, however, cause rainfall to occur over extensive areassimultaneously, with more intense rainfall typically occurring near the center of thestorm. Standard precipitation analysis methods require adjusting pointprecipitation depths downward in order to estimate the average depth of rainfallover the entire storm area. This is normally performed using depth-areareduction curves relating to a point precipitation reduction factor to storm areaand duration.In previous hydrologic studies in Southern Nevada, three methods have beenused for adjusting point-precipitation depths to areally-averaged depths. All earlystudies used the depth-area reduction curves presented in the NOAA Atlas 2(NOAA, 1973). These curves were developed through investigations of stormsthroughout the Western United States. In fact, the NOAA Atlas 2 for each statein the West contains the same family of depth-area reduction curves. Most of therecent studies have adopted depth-area reduction factors from a relatively newpublication known as "Hydro 40" (NOAA, 1984), which developed factorsapplicable specifically to Arizona and New Mexico.The USACE, Los Angeles District (1988) used slightly different depth-areareduction factors than those presented in "Hydro 40" for areas greater than30 square miles. These factors were based on analysis of thunderstorms in thegreater Las Vegas area. For areas up to 30 square miles the depth-areareduction factors are almost the same as those in "Hydro 40".The 6-hour USACE, Los Angeles District (1988) depth-area reduction factors areto be used for all rainfall analysis in the Clark County area. The USACE, Los Angeles District depth-area reduction curve is shown in
.The depth-area reduction factors for the 6-hour storm are also tabulated in 
.

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