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Published by SudharsananPRS
drainage manual part 8
drainage manual part 8

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Published by: SudharsananPRS on Jun 06, 2013
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Section 800Storm Sewer Systems
 A storm sewer system consists of a series of pipes, manholes, and inlets whichgenerally convey storm runoff from streets (gutter flow) to open channels or detention facilities. Storm sewers are generally utilized when the flow carryingcapacity of a street (gutter) is exceeded by the calculated storm runoff contributing to the said street (gutter). Inlets to the storm sewer are sized toreduce the amount of street (gutter) flow to a level where the downstream street(gutter) flow is not exceeded before the location of the next inlet. Manholes in thesewer system are provided to allow access to the storm sewer for inspection andmaintenance of the storm sewer.The size of the storm sewer system is generally governed by the minor stormflows. This is a result of the incremental flow capacity between the allowablestreet flow during major and minor storms being generally greater than theincremental difference in the peak runoff from major and minor storms. Inaddition, the storm sewer system will naturally carry some runoff in excess of therequired minor storm capacity during major storms due to natural surcharging of the storm sewer system.There are conditions, however, when the storm sewer system design will begoverned by the major storm flows. A partial listing of some of the possiblesituations are as follows:1.Locations where street flow is collected in a sump with no allowableoverflow capacity.2.Locations where the street cross-section is such that the allowable depth of flow in the street is limited to the curb height (i.e., elevated streets withnegative slopes at the ROW line).3.Locations where the desired major storm flow direction is not reflected bythe street flow direction during a major storm (i.e., flow splits atintersections. 4.Locations where the subject storm sewer system is accepting flows from anupstream storm sewer system or branch which is designed for major stormcapacity. 5.Regional storm sewers where designated in CCRFCD's adopted master plan.
Section 800 - Storm Sewer Systems
The storm sewer system designer must be aware that if a storm sewer is to bedesigned to carry major storm flows, then the inlets to the storm sewer must bedesigned accordingly.
802.1Allowable Storm Sewer Capacity
The storm sewer system shall be designed to convey a part or all of the minor or major storm (design storm) under surcharged or pressure flow conditions. Thestorm sewer shall be considered surcharged when the depth of flow (HGL) in thestorm sewer is greater than eighty percent of full flow depth. The maximum levelof surcharging for the capacity analysis shall be limited to maintaining the HGLto 1 foot below the final grade above the storm sewer at all locations. Special siteconditions that warrant additional surcharging will require locking type manholecovers or grated covers and will be reviewed on a case by case basis by thelocal entity and/or the CCRFCD. The EGL and HGL shall be calculated to include all hydraulic losses includingfriction, expansion, construction, bend, and junction losses. The methods for estimating these losses and for calculating the EGL and HGL are presented inthe following sections.
802.2Allowable Storm Sewer Velocity
The maximum allowable storm sewer velocity is dependent on many factorsincluding the type of pipe, the acceptable wear level during the pipe design life,proposed flow conditions (open channel versus pressure flows), and the type andquality of construction of joints, manholes, and junctions. In consideration of theabove factors, the maximum velocity in all storm sewers shall be limited to 25 fps.The need to maintain a self-cleaning storm sewer system is recognized as a goalto minimize the costs for maintenance of storm sewer facilities. Sedimentdeposits, once established, are generally difficult to remove without pressurecleaning equipment. However, the infrequency of storm runoff also possesses aproblem in obtaining flows large enough to maintain the self-cleaning quality of the design. Thus, a balance must be drawn between obtaining a self-cleaningsystem and constructing a reasonably sized and sloped storm sewer. A generally accepted criteria is to maintain a minimum velocity of 3 fps at half or full conduit flow conditions. At half full, the storm sewer will flow under openchannel flow conditions and thus the velocity in a given storm sewer is governedby the pipe slope. However, storm sewers generally cannot be constructed atslopes less than 0.25 percent and maintain a smooth even invert. At this slope.a minimum velocity of 3 fps is maintained. Therefore, the minimum allowable
Section 800 - Storm Sewer Systems
storm sewer slope shall be 0.25 percent. Any slope less than 0.25 percent shallrequire the local entity and/or CCRFCD approval.
802.3Manning's Roughness Coefficient
 All storm sewer system hydraulic calculations shall be performed using Manning'sFormula (see Section 701). Manning's "n" value is determined based on thesurface roughness of the storm sewer pipe material. In addition, for a given pipematerial, Manning's ”n” value theoretically varies based on depth of flow in thepipe. For the purposes of this MANUAL Manning's ”n” value is assumed to beconstant for all depths of pipe flow.Various pipe manufacturers have determined Manning's ”n” value for use withtheir specific product. However, for storm sewer hydraulic design, Manning's ”n”value should also account for additional friction losses from pipe joints, potentialdebris and sediment in the storm runoff, and the pipe interior surface conditionover the entire design life of the pipe. Therefore, presented on
Table 801
are theManning's ”n” value to be used for all storm sewer design and analysis preparedin accordance with this MANUAL.
802.4Storm Sewer Layout
The layout of a storm sewer system is governed by many factors includingexisting utility locations, street alignment, inlet placement, outfall location, andsurface topography. These factors place constraints around which the stormsewer must be designed and still operate as an effective system. In addition,these constraints have inherent priorities as to which constraint takes precedenceover the other constraints (i.e., relocating water lines versus designing aroundsanitary sewers).The storm sewer system, however, must also take priority when other constraintswould cause undesirable hydraulic conditions to occur in the storm sewer system,if the system were to be designed around the constraint. Therefore, limits arenecessary in the storm sewer layout to prevent undesirable hydraulic conditions.The limits on vertical and horizontal alignments are presented in the followingsections.
802.4.1Vertical Alignment
802.4.1.1Minimum and Maximum Cove

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