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Published by SudharsananPRS
Irrigation Manual Part 3
Irrigation Manual Part 3

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: SudharsananPRS on Jun 06, 2013
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Part 652Irrigation Guide
CropsChapter 3
3–21(210-vi-NEH, September 1997)
 
Chapter 3Crops
Contents:
3–i
652.0300Purpose and objective31
(a)Soil condition................................................................................................3–1(b)Nutrient management...................................................................................3–1(c)Soil, water, pest, nutrient, and crop residue management......................3–1
652.0301Crop growth characteristics32
(a)Response to water, crop yield, and quality................................................3–2(b)Critical growth periods................................................................................3–2(c)Irrigation related management....................................................................3–7(d)Rooting depth and moisture extraction patterns......................................3–8
652.0302Crop and irrigation system water requirements312
(a)Crop evapotranspiration............................................................................3–12(b)Irrigation frequency....................................................................................3–12(c)Net irrigation requirement.........................................................................3–12(d)Gross irrigation requirement.....................................................................3–13
652.0303Reduced irrigation and restricted water supply314652.0304Adapted irrigation systems315652.0305Temperatureeffects and management316
(a)High temperatures......................................................................................3–16(b)Low temperatures.......................................................................................3–16
652.0306Salinity and sodicity effects317
(a)General.........................................................................................................3–17(b)Measuring salinity and sodicity concentration.......................................3–17(c)Effects of salinity on yields.......................................................................3–17(d)Effect of salinity and sodicity on AWC....................................................3–17(e)Management practices for salinity and sodicity control........................3–18(f)Toxic elements............................................................................................3–18
652.0307Crop data bases319652.0308State supplement320
 
Part 652Irrigation Guide
CropsChapter 3
322(210-vi-NEH, September 1997)
 
3–ii
TablesTable 31
Critical periods for plant moisture stress33
Table 3–2
Adapted irrigation methods36
Table 3–3
Recommended Management Allowable Depletion (MAD)3–7for crop growth stages (%of AWC) growing in loamy soils
Table 3–4
Depths to which the roots of mature crops will extract3–8available soil water from a deep, uniform, well drainedsoil under average unrestricted conditions
Table 3–5
Irrigation system vs. crops grown315
FiguresFigure 3–1
Root distribution systems—deep homogenous soils3–9with good water management and no soil restrictions
Figure 3–2
 Typical water extraction pattern in uniform soil profile3–10
Figure 3–3
Effect of root development on soils with depth3–11limitations
 
Part 652Irrigation Guide
CropsChapter 3
3–1(210-vi-NEH, September 1997)
 
Chapter 3Crops
652.0300Purpose andobjective
 The purpose of irrigation is to supplement naturalprecipitation so that moisture requirements of cropsbeing grown are met. Crop response to irrigationvaries with soils, fertility, type of plants, stage of growth, and local climate. Where crop stress causedby moisture shortage is prevented by proper andtimely irrigation, other factors can become inhibitorsto desirable yield and quality.Knowledge of how plants respond to, and use, soilwater throughout their growing season is essential tosuccessfully design and manage an irrigation system.Continuous plant uptake of soil nutrients has a poten-tial for improving ground water quality. Profitable cropproduction is generally the objective of agriculture.With proper management, soils (or water) affected bysalinity or sodicity can sustain plant growth in perpe-tuity. Irrigation provides the insurance for high qualityand desirable quantity crops at reduced risk in semi-arid, subhumid, and humid areas. It is a necessity inarid regions. The effect of irrigation both onsite andoffsite on soil, water, air, plant, and animal resourcesalong with human considerations needs to be consid-ered.
(a)Soil condition
For desirable crop growth, good soil condition is keyto optimum soil aeration, water infiltration, permeabil-ity, and uniform root development. It also helps reducerunoff and potential soil erosion. Good soil conditioncan be maintained or improved by eliminating excesstillage operations, avoiding field operations while soil-water content is high, using organic material or cropresidue, and using grass and legumes in rotation. Toreduce opportunity of soil compaction on irrigatedpastures, livestock should be excluded during andafter irrigation until adequate soil surface dry-outoccurs.
(b)Nutrient management
A healthy plant uses water more efficiently than aplant that lacks nutrients and trace elements. Totalwater use by a healthy plant is greater than that for aplant deprived of nutrients. However, the yield per unitof water is much greater for healthy plants.Soil fertility is maintained with proper nutrient man-agement by maintaining proper soil reaction (pH level)and by using an appropriate cropping system. Limingmay be needed on acid soil. On saline soils, leaching of excess salts is generally needed. On sodic soils, bothsoil amendments and leaching may be needed. Soiltests, field observations, planned yield and quality, andfield experience help determine the type and amountof fertilizers and other elements to use. Using excessfertilizer or poor application timing can result inmovement of chemicals below the root zone into theground water or off the field.
(c)Soil, water, pest, nutrient, andcrop residue management
Optimum production requires the operator to controlweeds and insects, use high quality seed of adaptedvarieties, apply fertilizer according to plant needs, andpractice good soil and water management during allparts of the growing season. Crops grown should beselected to fit the soil, water, climate, irrigation sys-tem, farm equipment, and market availability. Plantpopulation can generally be increased when practicinggood soil, water, pesticide, nutrient, and crop residuemanagement.

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