Part 652Irrigation Guide
Selecting an Irrigation MethodChapter 5
5–2(210-vi-NEH, September 1997)
652.0501Methods andsystems to apply irrigationwater
The four basic irrigation methods, along with the manysystems to apply irrigation water, include: surface,sprinkle, micro, and subirrigation:
—Water is applied by gravity across the soilsurface by flooding or small channels (i.e., basins,borders, paddies, furrows, rills, corrugations)
—Water is applied at the point of use by asystem of nozzles (impact and gear driven sprinkler orspray heads) with water delivered to the sprinklerheads by surface and buried pipelines, or by both.Sprinkler irrigation laterals are classed as fixed set,periodic move, or continuous or self move. Sprinklerirrigation systems include solid set, handmove laterals,sideroll (wheel) laterals, center pivot, linear move(lateral move), and stationary and traveling gun types.Low Energy Precision Application (LEPA) and LowPressure In Canopy (LPIC) systems are included withsprinkler systems because they use center pivots andlinear move irrigation systems.
—Water is applied to the point of use throughlow pressure, low volume discharge devices (i.e., dripemitters, line source emitters, micro spray and sprin-kler heads, bubblers) supplied by small diametersurface or buried pipelines.
—Water is made available to the croproot system by upward capillary flow through the soilprofile from a controlled water table.Each irrigation method and irrigation system hasspecific site applicability, capability, and limitations.Broad factors that should be considered are:
Crops to be grown
Topography or physical site conditions
Operation and management skills