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Table Of Contents

1-2BRIEF HISTORY OF REMOTE SENSING
1-3REMOTE SENSING SPACE PLATFORMS
1-4TRANSMISSION THROUGH THE EARTH AND PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES
REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING
2-1FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
2-1-1Electromagnetic Spectrum
Nature and Properties of Electromagnetic Waves
2-1-2Maxwell’s Equations
2-1-3Wave Equation and Solution
2-1-4Quantum Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation
2-1-5Polarization
2-1-6Coherency
2-1-7Group and Phase Velocity
2-1-8Doppler Effect
2-2NOMENCLATURE AND DEFINITION OF RADIATION QUANTITIES
2-2-1Radiation Quantities
2-2-2Spectral Quantities
2-2-3Luminous Quantities
2-3GENERATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
2-4DETECTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
2-5INTERACTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES WITH MATTER: QUICK OVERVIEW
2-6INTERACTION MECHANISMS THROUGHOUT THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
EXERCISES
3-1SOURCE SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS
Solid Surfaces Sensing in the Visible and Near Infrared
3-2WAVE–SURFACE INTERACTION MECHANISMS
3-2-1Reflection, Transmission, and Scattering
3-2-2Vibrational Processes
3-2-3Electronic Processes
3-2-4Fluorescence
3-3SIGNATURE OF SOLID-SURFACE MATERIALS
3-3-1Signature of Geologic Materials
3-3-2Signature of Biologic Materials
3-3-3Depth of Penetration
3-4PASSIVE IMAGING SENSORS
3-4-2Sensor Elements
3-4-3Detectors
3-5TYPES OF IMAGING SYSTEMS
3-6DESCRIPTION OF SOME VISIBLE/INFRARED IMAGING SENSORS
3-6-1Landsat-Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)
3-6-3Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC)
3-6-4Mars Exploration Rover Panchromatic Camera (Pancam)
3-7ACTIVE SENSORS
3.8SURFACE SENSING AT VERY SHORT WAVELENGTHS
3-8-1Radiation Sources
3-8-2Detection
3-9IMAGE DATA ANALYSIS
3-9-1Detection and Delineation
3-9-2Classification
3-9-3Identification
SOLID-SURFACE SENSING: THERMAL INFRARED
4-1THERMAL RADIATION LAWS
4-1-1Emissivity of Natural Terrain
4-1-2Emissivity from the Sun and Planetary Surfaces
4-2HEAT CONDUCTION THEORY
4-3EFFECT OF PERIODIC HEATING
4-4USE OF THERMAL EMISSION IN SURFACE REMOTE SENSING
4-4-1Surface Heating by the Sun
4-4-2Effect of Surface Cover
4-4-3Separation of Surface Units Based on Their Thermal Signature
4-4-4Example of Application in Geology
4-4-5Effects of Clouds on Thermal Infrared Sensing
4-5USE OF THERMAL INFRARED SPECTRAL SIGNATURES IN SENSING
4-6THERMAL INFRARED SENSORS
4-6-1Heat Capacity Mapping Radiometer
4-6-2Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner
4-6-3ASTER Thermal Infrared Imager
4-6-4Spitzer Space Telescope
4-6-52001 Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS)
4-6-6Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)
SOLID-SURFACE SENSING: MICROWAVE EMISSION
5-1POWER–TEMPERATURE CORRESPONDENCE
5-2SIMPLE MICROWAVE RADIOMETRY MODELS
5-2-1Effects of Polarization
5-2-2Effects of the Observation Angle
5-2-3Effects of the Atmosphere
5-2-4Effects of Surface Roughness
5-3APPLICATIONS AND USE IN SURFACE SENSING
5-3-1Application in Polar Ice Mapping
5-3-2Application in Soil Moisture Mapping
5-3-3Measurement Ambiguity
5-4DESCRIPTION OF MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS
5-4-1Antenna and Scanning Configuration for Real-Aperture Radiometers
5-4-2Synthetic-Aperture Radiometers
5-4-3Receiver Subsystems
5-4-4Data Processing
5-5EXAMPLES OF DEVELOPED RADIOMETERS
5-5-1Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR)
5-5-2Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I)
5-5-3Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission Microwave Imager (TMI)
5-5-4Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E)
6-1SURFACE INTERACTION MECHANISM
SOLID-SURFACE SENSING: MICROWAVE AND RADIO FREQUENCIES
6-1-1Surface Scattering Models
6-1-2Absorption Losses and Volume Scattering
6-1-3Effects of Polarization
6-1-4Effects of the Frequency
6-1-5Effects of the Incidence Angle
6-1-6Scattering from Natural Terrain
6-2BASIC PRINCIPLES OF RADAR SENSORS
6-2-1Antenna Beam Characteristics
6-2-2Signal Properties: Spectrum
6-2-3Signal Properties: Modulation
6-2-4Range Measurements and Discrimination
6-2-5Doppler (Velocity) Measurement and Discrimination
6-2-6High-Frequency Signal Generation
6-3IMAGING SENSORS: REAL-APERTURE RADARS
6-3-1Imaging Geometry
6-3-2Range Resolution
6-3-3Azimuth Resolution
6-3-4Radar Equation
6-3-5Signal Fading
6-3-6Fading Statistics
6-3-7Geometric Distortion
6-4IMAGING SENSORS: SYNTHETIC-APERTURE RADARS
6-4-1Synthetic-Array Approach
6-4-2Focused Versus Unfocused SAR
6-4-3Doppler-Synthesis Approach
6-4-4SAR Imaging Coordinate System
6-4-5Ambiguities and Artifacts
6-4-6Point Target Response
6-4-7Correlation with Point Target Response
6-4-8Advanced SAR Techniques
6-4-9Description of SAR Sensors
6-4-10Applications of Imaging Radars
6-5NONIMAGING RADAR SENSORS: SCATTEROMETERS
6-5-1Examples of Scatterometer Instruments
6-5-2Examples of Scatterometer Data
6-6NONIMAGING RADAR SENSORS: ALTIMETERS
6-6-1Examples of Altimeter Instruments
6-6-2Altimeter Applications
6-6-3Imaging Altimetry
6-6-4Wide Swath Ocean Altimeter
6-7NONCONVENTIONAL RADAR SENSORS
6-8SUBSURFACE SOUNDING
OCEAN SURFACE SENSING
7-1PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE OCEAN SURFACE
7-1-1Tides and Currents
7-1-2Surface Waves
7-2MAPPING OF THE OCEAN TOPOGRAPHY
7-2-1Geoid Measurement
7-2-2Surface Wave Effects
7-2-3Surface Wind Effects
7-2-4Dynamic Ocean Topography
7-2-5Ancillary Measurements
7-3SURFACE WIND MAPPING
7-3-1Observations Required
7-3-2Nadir Observations
7-4OCEAN SURFACE IMAGING
7-4-1Radar Imaging Mechanisms
7-4-2Examples of Ocean Features on Radar Images
7-4-3Imaging of Sea Ice
7-4-4Ocean Color Mapping
7-4-5Ocean Surface Temperature Mapping
8-1PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ATMOSPHERE
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ATMOSPHERIC SENSING AND RADIATIVE TRANSFER
8-2ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION
8-3PARTICULATES AND CLOUDS
8-4WAVE INTERACTION MECHANISMS IN PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES
8-4-1Resonant Interactions
8-4-2Spectral Line Shape
8-4-3Nonresonant Absorption
8-4-4Nonresonant Emission
8-4-5Wave Particle Interaction and Scattering
8-4-6Wave Refraction
8-5OPTICAL THICKNESS
8-6RADIATIVE TRANSFER EQUATION
8-7CASE OF A NONSCATTERING PLANE PARALLEL ATMOSPHERE
9-2-1Temperature Sounding
9-2-2Constituent Density Profile: Case of Water Vapor
9-3BASIC CONCEPT FOR UPLOOKING SENSORS
9-8ATMOSPHERIC SOUNDING BY OCCULTATION
9-9MICROWAVE SCATTERING BY ATMOSPHERIC PARTICLES
9-10RADAR SOUNDING OF RAIN
9-11RADAR EQUATION FOR PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENT
9-12THE TROPICAL RAINFALL MEASURING MISSION (TRMM)
10-1INTERACTION WITH ATMOSPHERIC CONSTITUENTS
MILLIMETER AND SUBMILLIMETER SENSING OF ATMOSPHERES
10-2DOWNLOOKING SOUNDING
10-3LIMB SOUNDING
10-4ELEMENTS OF A MILLIMETER SOUNDER
11-1INTERACTION OF VISIBLE AND INFRARED RADIATION WITH THE ATMOSPHERE
11-1-1Visible and Near-Infrared Radiation
11-1-2Thermal Infrared Radiation
11-1-3Resonant Interactions
11-1-4Effects of Scattering by Particulates
11-2DOWNLOOKING SOUNDING
11-2-1General Formulation for Emitted Radiation
11-2-2Temperature Profile Sounding
11-2-3Simple Case Weighting Functions
11-2-4Weighting Functions for Off-Nadir Observations
11-2-5Composition Profile Sounding
11-3LIMB SOUNDING
11-3-1Limb Sounding by Emission
11-3-2Limb Sounding by Absorption
11-3-3Illustrative Example: Pressure Modulator Radiometer
11-3-4Illustrative Example: Fourier Transform Spectroscopy
11-4SOUNDING OF ATMOSPHERIC MOTION
11-4-1Passive Techniques
11-4-2Passive Imaging of Velocity Field: Helioseismology
11-4-3Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR)
11-4-4Active Techniques
11-5ATMOSPHERIC SENSING AT VERY SHORT WAVELENGTHS
12-1PROPERTIES OF PLANETARY IONOSPHERES
IONOSPHERIC SENSING
12-2WAVE PROPAGATION IN IONIZED MEDIA
12-3IONOSPHERIC PROFILE SENSING BY TOPSIDE SOUNDING
12-4IONOSPHERIC PROFILE BY RADIO OCCULTATION
B-1-1General Characteristics
P. 1
Introduction To The Physics and Techniques of Remote Sensing

Introduction To The Physics and Techniques of Remote Sensing

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Published by Wiley
The science and engineering of remote sensing--theory and applications



The Second Edition of this authoritative book offers readers the essential science and engineering foundation needed to understand remote sensing and apply it in real-world situations. Thoroughly updated to reflect the tremendous technological leaps made since the publication of the first edition, this book covers the gamut of knowledge and skills needed to work in this dynamic field, including:
* Physics involved in wave-matter interaction, the building blocks for interpreting data
* Techniques used to collect data
* Remote sensing applications


The authors have carefully structured and organized the book to introduce readers to the basics, and then move on to more advanced applications. Following an introduction, Chapter 2 sets forth the basic properties of electromagnetic waves and their interactions with matter. Chapters 3 through 7 cover the use of remote sensing in solid surface studies, including oceans. Each chapter covers one major part of the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., visible/near infrared, thermal infrared, passive microwave, and active microwave).

Chapters 8 through 12 then cover remote sensing in the study of atmospheres and ionospheres. Each chapter first presents the basic interaction mechanism, followed by techniques to acquire, measure, and study the information, or waves, emanating from the medium under investigation. In most cases, a specific advanced sensor is used for illustration.

The book is generously illustrated with fifty percent new figures. Numerous illustrations are reproduced in a separate section of color plates. Examples of data acquired from spaceborne sensors are included throughout. Finally, a set of exercises, along with a solutions manual, is provided.

This book is based on an upper-level undergraduate and first-year graduate course taught by the authors at the California Institute of Technology. Because of the multidisciplinary nature of the field and its applications, it is appropriate for students in electrical engineering, applied physics, geology, planetary science, astronomy, and aeronautics. It is also recommended for any engineer or scientist interested in working in this exciting field.
The science and engineering of remote sensing--theory and applications



The Second Edition of this authoritative book offers readers the essential science and engineering foundation needed to understand remote sensing and apply it in real-world situations. Thoroughly updated to reflect the tremendous technological leaps made since the publication of the first edition, this book covers the gamut of knowledge and skills needed to work in this dynamic field, including:
* Physics involved in wave-matter interaction, the building blocks for interpreting data
* Techniques used to collect data
* Remote sensing applications


The authors have carefully structured and organized the book to introduce readers to the basics, and then move on to more advanced applications. Following an introduction, Chapter 2 sets forth the basic properties of electromagnetic waves and their interactions with matter. Chapters 3 through 7 cover the use of remote sensing in solid surface studies, including oceans. Each chapter covers one major part of the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., visible/near infrared, thermal infrared, passive microwave, and active microwave).

Chapters 8 through 12 then cover remote sensing in the study of atmospheres and ionospheres. Each chapter first presents the basic interaction mechanism, followed by techniques to acquire, measure, and study the information, or waves, emanating from the medium under investigation. In most cases, a specific advanced sensor is used for illustration.

The book is generously illustrated with fifty percent new figures. Numerous illustrations are reproduced in a separate section of color plates. Examples of data acquired from spaceborne sensors are included throughout. Finally, a set of exercises, along with a solutions manual, is provided.

This book is based on an upper-level undergraduate and first-year graduate course taught by the authors at the California Institute of Technology. Because of the multidisciplinary nature of the field and its applications, it is appropriate for students in electrical engineering, applied physics, geology, planetary science, astronomy, and aeronautics. It is also recommended for any engineer or scientist interested in working in this exciting field.

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Publish date: May 11, 2006
Added to Scribd: Jun 06, 2013
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9780471783381
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